Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Cater Administration and the Evolution of American Nuclear Non-profileration Policy - Essay Example t nuclear power cannot be used in our time, but these people overlook the fact that some marginalized countries already have nuclear technologies, and their nuclear potential is constantly increasing. Furthermore, it is considered that such countries as Iran and Northern Korea are developing their own nuclear programs. The aim of the Carter administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s non-proliferation measures was to decrease the whole amount of nuclear weapons in the world and to control possible proliferation. Michael J. Martinez in his article The Carter Administration and the Evolution of American Nonproliferation Policy, 1977-1981 has analyzed the main features of CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s non-proliferation policy. This paper will briefly explain AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear non-proliferation policy from 1945-1977; it will also discuss the CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to influence the policy process, as well as positive and negative results of CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s non-proliferation policy. 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Non-proliferation policyÃ¢â¬ refers to foreign policy measures directed at reducing world nuclear weapons through international treaties between states possessing nuclear technology or trying to have it. American nuclear non-proliferation policy from 1945 until 1977 has greatly changed. These changes were dictated by unstable foreign policy situations which were evident in the constant tension between the United States with its European allies and the Soviet Union. After World War II, former Anti-Hitler Coalition allies frequently disagreed and constantly confronted each other, which resulted in the Cold War. After World War II and in the beginning of the Cold War, U.S. efforts were directed toward stopping proliferation and halting the development of nuclear programs of the Soviet Union and its Socialist allies. American nuclear policy also was concentrated on assisting U.S. allies to develop defensive nuclear capabilities in Western Europe. Nuclear bomb testing by Fra nce changed the U.S. strategy pursued strict non-proliferation
Globalization - Research Paper Example Although the term Ã¢â¬ËglobalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is widely used and assumed to be crucially important across the globe, most people are unaware of the exact meaning of this term, as they have only a scant idea about this process. As Jan Aart Scholte (2000) maintains, Ã¢â¬Å"globalization is a distinctive and significant feature of recent world history. Moreover, the dynamics of globalization involve several of the core forces of modern social life: rationalist knowledge, capitalist production, automated technology, and bureaucratic governance.Ã¢â¬ (Scholte, 2000, p. 3). Therefore, a critical introduction to the concept of globalization confirms that it is a vital process involving almost all levels of social system of current world, although the discussions of globalization are generally muddled, redundant, unsubstantiated, and hyped due to the context of the world today. It is fundamental to recognize that globalization as a concept refers to the compression of the world as well as the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole. Significantly, the processes and actions connected with globalization have been proceeding from the past over a long period and it is probable that it will go on to be the most engaging concept of discussion in the socio-political and economic spheres for long.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Quality Management - Case Study Example The objective of any business organisation is to generate profit. Quality Management System (QMS) ensures improvement in business situation and for attaining long term growth. In the today's competitive world, quality is crucial factor for survival in any type of organisation. QMS mainly focus on ensuring Quality Assurance and Quality Control. Quality assurance focuses on overall process and to verify that it is carried out in required manner. Quality control is the accepting or rejecting the product. QC is mainly product oriented approach. QMS involves QC, QA and overall business management process. ISO 9001:2000 is a Quality Management Standard. ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) is established to develop international standard for management or product or services. They used to conduct auditing process for acquiring ISO certification. This can be applied in all kinds of organisation irrespective to its size and type of business. In the today's shipping service sector, ISO 9001:2000 is crucial for meeting customer satisfaction and thus for ensuring profitability. ISO 9001 is the most suitable standard for quality assurance in shipping sector. Shipping sectors are pressurised to provide a proof of quality management system by their clients as well as by authorities. ... Customer Satisfaction usually determines the growth of the company. Customer satisfaction can be attained by quality of products or services. Dissatisfaction of the customer is mainly arises due to failure in meeting their expectations and demand. IDO is providing more sophisticated services to its passengers and this reflected in their in number of customers increased over the years. Generation of profit is the main objective of shipping companies and so they mainly focused on reducing the daily operational expenses rather than providing efficient services. Cost cutting measures can be seen at everywhere but International Maritime Organisation has made rules and regulations. Cost cutting measures might affect the company in the long run. In the short run it may bring additional income. It is not practical to adopt cost cutting on customer service and maintenance of efficiency. 2 Company Profile: Istanbul Deniz Otobusleri (IDO-Istanbul Seabuses and Fast Ferries Inc.) was established in the year 1987 by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality mainly with the emphasis on public transport by sea. Firstly they started with 10 seabuses and now they are grown into world's largest seabuses and Ferry service provider. Today they are carrying about 90 million passengers and 5 million vehicles yearly. It has been seen that they are continuously developing year by year. Seabuses are reliable and comfortable for passengers of Istanbul and Marmara Sea. Each seabuses has a capacity of about 500 passengers. In addition, they are allocating more funds for investment and development of vessels. There was tremendous increase in the number of passengers travelling over the last few years. IDO
Globalization - Essay Example Globalization specifically refers to economic integration of local economies with an international system. It aims to erase the national boundaries and governs international trade by comparative advantage. The concept of globalization became popular in the late 1980s and 1990s. Globalization began with Portuguese adventurers and navigators who established a chain of fortresses, key strong points and coastal areas to create a chain of economy and culture which was global in nature. Modern globalization began after World War II as economists, corporations and politicians recognized the negative aspects of protectionism. They saw the advantages of international economic integration. Several international institutions like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank were created to reduce the costs of trade and remove restrictions on free trade. Since then many barriers to international trade have been lowered. The World Trade Organization was established to promote free trade and reduce tariffs. It also called for the recognition of intellectual property restrictions. Globalization remains a unique phenomenon because of the rapid spread of technology, economic trade and foreign investment in many parts of the world. There are many affects of globalization which point out that we live in a globalized world (Friedman 56, 2005). The impact of globalization can be measured by the goods and services which form the proportion of national incomes. It can also be measured by the net migration rates and direct investment that comes inside a country by foreign organizations. Finally the impact of international research and development and the proportion of populations using modern technologies like the cell phone, internet, and motorcar on a country can measure the affect of globalization for a particular country. In addition to the economic measurement of globalization, it can also be measured by social and political factors. Globalization has changed the world in many different ways. It has heralded the advent of worldwide production markets which provide more access to foreign products for consumers and companies. Global financial markets have emerged in different parts of the world which provide better access to external financing for corporations and local borrowers. The creations of world organizations which regulate the relationships between nations and protect their rights have sprung up due to globalization. China is an amazing success story of globalization because of its tremendous economic growth rate. In recent years China's economy has rapidly grown. This rapid growth of economy is the important point in the field of economic development which has been acknowledged by the international community. The UN says that China is the backbone of Asia's economic development. This statement is enough to tell that China is playing an active role in contributing to the world economy. China's rapid economic growth has made a huge impact on the world's economy in stabilizing and recovery it. China is the globe's best commodity market (Ankerl 36, 2000). Chinese products are found all over the world. During the period of 1990-2001 China's export growth rate was 14.9% and the import growth rate was 15.5%. China's good and cheap exported products have benefited many consumers globally. American buyers of goods and products have saved about US$15 billion annually. China's rapid import growth rate has created various job opportunities globally. The foreign trade of China has enabled free flow and minimum utilization of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Curriculum Development and Design Essay These programs arose from the thinking of a group of pioneers who believed that the educational approach that had been developed by medical education innovators at McMaster University was also most relevant for the preparation of occupational therapists and physiotherapists. Consequently, a group of educators from both institutions, Mohawk College and McMaster University, combined their skills and created a vision that became the diploma programs in occupational therapy and physiotherapy. This approach was problem-based learning, and was used as the foundation for both programs from their inception to the present day, across three different iterations of curriculum. One of the key innovations to the way in which the college programs were taught was the combination of using faculty from both the university and college to teach all courses. In the 1980s, a degree completion program was launched that provided graduates of the diploma program a chance to upgrade their qualification to a bachelors degree from McMaster University. This was particularly important since the minimum credential for entry to practice had been raised to the baccalaureate level by the professional associations. In 1989, the program moved completely into the university setting and the graduates were granted a BHSc(PT) or BHSc(OT), a bachelor degree in health sciences. Ten years later, in 2000, candidates were admitted to the entrylevel masters programs in occupational therapy and physiotherapy. The Pedagogical Framework: Problem-based Learning As briefly referred to above, the occupational therapy and physiotherapy programs at McMaster University have a strong history with and legacy of problem-based learning. While the initial curriculum models were strongly influenced by the inaugural undergraduate medical curriculum, time and confidence presented opportunities to create our own models. These models reflect the special nuances of each discipline. Problem-based learning is recognized as having begun at McMaster University, in the medical curriculum, and was in response to critical concerns about the nature of more traditional learning models in medical curricula. The intention was to create an approach to teaching and learning that was learner-centered, yet based upon clear objectives and evaluation criteria. The key difference was the expectation that learners would be facilitated and guided rather than taught (Barrows and Tamblyn 1980; Neufeld 1983; Saarinen and Salvatori 1994). Both the occupational therapy and physiotherapy programs at McMaster University have embraced these ideas, although with differing degrees of connection and commitment to the original model. In fact, true problem-based learning models should naturally emerge from each individual context and culture. There is no Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ way although there is a growing recognition of a common set of principles and elements that can be applied to determine the Ã¢â¬Å"problembased-nessÃ¢â¬ of a learning environment (Maudesley 1994; Walton and Matthews 1989). Problem-based learning principles tend to become grouped in two distinct categories: first, the values upon which problem-based learning is based and second, some characteristics that are held in common understanding as being critical to the core of problem-based learning. Underlying values include: partnership, honesty and openness, mutual respect, and trust. Core characteristics incorporate: Chapter 2 Curriculum Development and Design 13 i Learning which is student/learner-centered i Faculty roles that are those of facilitator and guide i Learning scenarios which form the basis, focus, and stimulus for learning i New information and understanding that is acquired through self-directed learning (Baptiste 2003 p. 17) Consequently, there is a continuum of problem-based curricula from pure through hybrid models. The masters entry-level physiotherapy and occupational therapy programs at the School of Rehabilitation Science at McMaster University continue to be based upon problem-based principles. Although both programs are very different one from the other, there are also many common elements and approaches that are celebrated. Examples of these similarities are cited throughout this book, particularly in the chapters focusing on evidence-based practice and ethics education. Approaching the Task of Curriculum Renewal Perhaps one of the most overwhelming, yet exciting, tasks with which to be confronted is the opportunity and challenge of developing a new curriculum. This task is made even more daunting when circumstances provide a chance to do something different based on external forces and not a need to change because Ã¢â¬Å"something is brokenÃ¢â¬ . Over the past few years, and in several years to come, many educational programs in rehabilitation science are facing this situation. The changing nature of the entry-level credential for occupational therapists and physiotherapists demands that faculty undertake a detailed review of curricula, to determine the optimal approach to moving toward graduate-level preparation, or, at the very least, complete a review of existing curricula models to identify their responsiveness and congruence with emerging practice expectations and demands. Approaches to such a massive task can vary from ensuring the preservation of what is good from the existing curriculum to making a total shift and adopting a radically Table 2. 1. Principles for curricular change and innovation Rationale should be articulated explicitly Overall goals should be reiterated constantly throughout the process Continuing communication is essential, coupled with a clear rationale Ensure that the intended change is in response to a defined and recognized need or purpose Ensure that the innovation is seen as a high institutional priority Focus on pedagogy and not on resources for implementation Foster strong leadership support Identify incentives for faculty participation Gain faculty buy-in for the curricular blueprint Involve the active teaching faculty throughout the process Anticipate potential barriers to change and develop strategies to address them Recognize the potential need for and value of negotiation Adapted from Guze (1995) 14 Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon 2 new approach and design. To have an optimal effect, options to be considered should bear relevance to the pervading culture of the institution and environment within which the curriculum is to thrive. Also, decisions must be made concerning the pedagogical choices of how learner-centered the curriculum should be, and what particular educational modalities are the best for the circumstances. This chapter will address the entire picture of curriculum development and design, from the first conversations about how to engage in the renewal process through making decisions about methods of teaching, approaches to learner assessment, and preparation of entry-level practitioners for the emerging practice contexts. Guze (1995) provided a clear and succinct discussion of several core principles that can guide curricular change and innovation (Table 2. 1). The following is an overview of these principles. Where to Begin? Motivation for curriculum renewal can come from both internal and external forces. External expectations from regulatory and professional bodies are tending to impose standards for new practitioners that require: i Preparation at an advanced level of clinical reasoning and judgment i The ability to assume roles that require autonomy and a strong sense of professional ethics i Engaging in their professional role from the first day of practice, in a conscious nd moral manner that requires reflection and self-awareness Regardless of whether the motivation for curricular change stems from a desire to do something differently or better, or from outside influences, the task is one that requires careful planning. However, it is imperative that any planning process recognizes the need to dream and envision what could be, to create a model that will exemplify those visions, and to produce a graduate who is well prepared to face the complexities and challenges of emerging practice. When developing a curriculum, four general questions must be asked: i What is the purpose of the curriculum? i What educational experiences can be created to fulfill this purpose? What is the most effective manner in which to organize these educational experiences? i How can we determine that the purpose has been fulfilled and the goals attained (Wiers et al. 2002)? Another very critical element of any change is the recognition that the cultural context is a key in managing change successfully. Hafferty (1998), when reflecting upon the realities of a medical school curriculum, discusses the existence of informal and hidden curricula as well as the formal curriculum. He posits that, in order to induce a lasting change, the entire organizational culture needs to be engaged to facilitate stud ents and faculty alike in embracing and working with change. When facing the task of curricular reform, redesign has to occur not only in terms of content, but also in relation to the Chapter 2 Curriculum Development and Design 15 educational processes that enable the learning to take place. This is the difference between reforming the syllabus and reforming the curriculum; the overall learning environment of the educational program and institution is changed (Burton and McDonald 2001). Once the decision has been made to reform the curriculum, a first step is to complete an environmental scan and situational analysis that explore the educational and organizational environment within the institution, to determine what will facilitate the proposed changes. By defining a clear and newly articulated set of riorities and guidelines, changes that are being made within the curriculum will be given the vehicle through which impact can be made upon the surrounding environment (Genn 2001). This strategy is part of the first overall phase, the planning p hase. This is when the need for change is established and the vision for change is designed. It is during this phase of development that the non-negotiable elements of structure and process are determined. For example, within the School of Rehabilitation Science at McMaster University, both the Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Programs were already designed as two-year, twenty-four-month, curricula. Also, the province of Ontario mandates that all masters programs are two years in duration. Therefore, the decision was readily made, based on these graduate program regulations and history, that the new masters entry-level curricula would be twenty-four months long. One key commitment was clear and that was to the foundational philosophy of problem-based, selfdirected learning utilizing the application of these principles to small group, large group, and skills-based learning experiences. Wiers et al. (2002) provide a clear and helpful outline of ten general steps of curriculum design within a problem-based learning context (see Table 2. 2). While this rubric is structured around the specific processes inherent within problem-based learning development, most of the guidelines can apply broadly across any curricular development process within any pedagogical framework. From the onset, all faculty members at McMaster University were on board regarding the need to undertake the development of entry-level masters curricula in both occupational therapy and physiotherapy. Both disciplines had undergone dramatic changes in the preceding two decades, largely focused upon the growth of foundational science and evidence for practice. Professional practice models had emerged for both professions and provided a strong backdrop against which to create fresh ap- Table 2. 2. Ten general steps in curriculum design for a problem-based learning (PBL) environment 1. . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Give rationale for the curriculum and form a planning group Generate general educational objectives for the curriculum Assess the educational needs o f future students Apply general principles of PBL to the curriculum Structure the curriculum and generate a curriculum blueprint Elaborate the unit blueprints Construct the study units Decide on student assessment methods Consider the educational organization and curriculum management model Evaluate the curriculum and revise as appropriate Adapted from Wiers et al. (2002) 16 Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon 2 proaches to the preparation of graduates for entering practice. While both the occupational therapy and physiotherapy programs undertook curriculum renewal at the same time, the physiotherapy program had engaged in an ongoing process of change across the preceding five years. Many of the issues, concerns, and changes addressed and implemented by the occupational therapy program had already been addressed by physiotherapy. Therefore, this chapter will focus predominantly upon the initiatives inherent within the curricular shift within occupational therapy, although reference will be made to processes within physiotherapy as appropriate. Designing Our New Programs Deciding upon the overarching constructs that would determine the final curriculum model was a complex and dramatic process in many ways, and one in which everyone was eager to participate and have a chance to have input. At the onset of the development of the occupational therapy program, three faculty retreats were held that progressed from a totally unstructured brainstorm of what would be perfect, to a detailed accounting of core curricular elements in the context of a delivery structure. In the initial retreat, all full-time faculty members together with some part-time members participated in a Ã¢â¬Å"blue-skyingÃ¢â¬ day-long session during which everyone spoke of their dreams for the perfect curriculum. What if we could do what we wanted? What if we did not have to be concerned with logistics like room bookings? Ã¢â¬â and so on. This exercise provided us with a high-level ppreciation of the values and elements that were important to us as a collective. It was from this beginning Ã¢â¬Å"fantasyÃ¢â¬ that the next level of planning emerged. The second retreat was more structured and focused upon the creation of a continuum for learning that resulted in the overarching framework for the cur riculum, together with the delivery methods. A process was followed whereby we decided upon a central construct around which the whole curriculum would evolve, namely, Ã¢â¬Å"occupationÃ¢â¬ . To support this core notion, there were several longitudinal conceptual threads that represented continua of thought such as: wellness to illness, simplicity to complexity, local to global, and unifaceted to multifaceted. Through this process, we were able to identify the starting place for the first study term, and to create a high-level framework for the progression of the total curriculum (see Table 2. 3) In physiotherapy, the process began similarly with a faculty retreat; however, the focus varied slightly. Initial discussions identified elements of the curriculum that we Table 2. 3. Occupational therapy curricular framework Term 1 2 3 4 5 6 Content theme Wellness, health, and occupation Person, environment, and occupation Development, disability, and occupation Youth and the development of self Adulthood and disability Complexities of contemporary practice Chapter 2 Curriculum Development and Design 17 alued and wanted to maintain and those needing less emphasis. Through ongoing curricular evaluation and feedback, we identified new areas that needed to be included in the emerging curriculum and other areas that needed to be enhanced. These areas were discussed within the context of the changing practice of physiotherapy and the knowledge and skills required by the physiotherapist in the new millennium. The decision was made to use a curricular framework that incorporated a modified Ã¢â¬Å"body systemsÃ¢â¬ design, as current physiotherapy practice and clinical specialties were aligned with this model. Inclusion of a Community Practice/Community Health unit allowed or a focus on emergent health care roles in the community and on integrating health promotion and disease prevention into practice. The faculty recognized that while many physiotherapists identified their practice in an area related to the body systems, increasingly clinicians were faced with more complex patients with multiple system involvement. Hence, the final unit of study focused on integrated practice dealing with clients with complex multisystem health care problems. Following the initial planning process, it is now time to initiate the plan. It is during this time period that the Ã¢â¬Å"unfreezingÃ¢â¬ of old organizational patterns and the introduction of innovations into the educational environment take place (Burton and McDonald 2001). Often, while there is a strong commitment to engaging in the conversations that lead to the design of a changed reality, it is a very different matter to start Ã¢â¬Å"doingÃ¢â¬ and actually making that changed reality come to life. A cooperative internal environment is essential for the realization of that initial dream and therefore it is well worthwhile for planners to engage in a transparent and collaborative experience that enables maximum participation and open debate. A process of this nature is characterized by collaborative problem solving, effective communication, abilities in conflict resolution, and a cultural expectation of working together in harmony that guides the overall enterprise (Burton and McDonald 2001). Therefore, it is of importance to determine at the onset the values and behaviors by which the development experience will be approached to set up structures and processes that will ensure that the best attempts at making it so will be expended. During the initiation period, we experienced intense interest and levels of emotion from all participants regarding the manner in which the planning and the visions for the two disciplines would be evolved and realized. As mentioned previously, we had determined that the existing problem-based learning principles would remain but that the key changes would be realized through the manner in which the content was introduced to the students and through which the continuum of learning would evolve. Similarly, we were committed to maintaining a student-centered approach. One core difference was to be the manner in which the experiential component of professional preparation would be integrated more centrally into both curricula. Previously, the curricula were designed in a more traditional fashion whereby the clinical fieldwork experiences were placed at the end of each study term and were linked directly to the area of academic focus for the preceding learning block. By definition, once the overarching concepts of the curricula were determined to be different from the previous models, then fieldwork placements would become less strictly aligned. This was reinforced more heavily in the occupational therapy program which was originally designed around developmental stages and central practice populations. Students would face a more eclectic approach in their clinical learning; therefore, both programs determined that learning around professional issues and practice expectations should be interwoven through the longitudinal axis of the curriculum. 18 Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon Redevelopment Within a Problem-based Learning Culture 2 As with any problem-based learning system, the small group learning unit is the nucleus of the whole curriculum. However, the success of problem-based, small group learning is supported by the strategic use of large group interactions for the imparting of theoretical and expert knowledge, while still maintaining a problem-based learning philosophy. Similarly, the application of problem-based learning principles is a critical piece of one-on-one learning and synthesis of knowledge and information throughout the academic and clinical components of the curriculum overall. Both the physiotherapy and occupational therapy programs elected to continue to utilize problem-based learning methods in a manner that celebrated the development already achieved over twenty-five years of curriculum development. This has evolved over time very differently in each program. For example, during the planning process for the occupational therapy curriculum, efforts were made to define new models for tutoring and many were identified and put into place. During the second year of the occupational therapy program, the problem-based tutorials occur only once weekly. This allows additional scheduling time for including the evidence-based practice courses and is also in response to the difficulties many practitioners are experiencing in gaining release time from employers to participate as tutors. In this new tutorial model, tutors are required to participate in only one weekly session with two or three tutorsÃ¢â¬â¢ meetings across the term instead of weekly. Application of problem-based learning principles in large groups has been maintained and, in fact, enhanced particularly in the clinical skills sessions. Students often are placed in small groups (different groups from their core tutorial group) and provided with opportunities to explore assessment tools and intervention methods. Through these group experiences, the students apply a problem-based learning approach to the identification of learning issues, the uncovering of essential information and resources, and the synthesis of their understanding of the tool or technique. Integration of Experiential Practice Preparation Within a Problem-based Learning Framework As mentioned earlier, both the physiotherapy and occupational therapy faculty groups were committed to ensuring the integration of academic and experiential learning into the curricula from the beginning, and were focused on developing innovative models for the synthesis of practice preparation into the core academic units. It is important to note that the work related to integration commenced at the very onset of the curriculum planning process. In the case of the occupational therapy program, there had always been sessions held throughout the full curriculum that provided opportunities for the Clinical Placement Coordinator (now Professional Practice Coordinator) to inform, advise, educate, and monitor students in preparing for their practice experiences and in checking in with them following these experiences. However, a greater focus on such integration was placed within the masters entry-level curriculum model in order to ensure that students were being prepared to meet the enhanced expectations of a graduate program. Chapter 2 Curriculum Development and Design 19 Evaluation Within a Graduate Problem-based Learning Framework There should be clear and close linkages between how students learn and how that learning is assessed. Therefore, some information will be presented here relative to the evaluation methods developed at McMaster University in the occupational therapy and physiotherapy programs. Student Evaluation. In the preceding years, the two programs at McMaster University had been very involved in designing evaluation/student assessment tools that reflected the principles of problem-based learning and provided students with opportunities to integrate their academic learning with their growing professional awareness and identity. Most of these tools are built around the basic problem-based learning process of exploring a learning scenario that has been developed to address the objectives for the particular learning unit. Essentially, problem-based evaluation needs to be congruent with the underlying values and principles of problem-based learning. Traditional methods of assessing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge tend to be contradictory to these principles and therefore should not be applied out of context. Problem-based learner assessment should: i Be congruent with the underlying problem-based learning process illustrated by the development of learning scenarios based on real life practice situations i Mirror the problem-based learning process of reflecting on a practice scenario, efining learning issues, researching, synthesizing, and synopsizing the learning with application to the defined case i Involve personal reflection and enhanced awareness of individual critical think- ing and clinical reasoning skills F aculty Evaluation. As with student assessment, the evaluation of faculty is central to the maintenance and enhancement of a problem-based learning culture. And, similarly, faculty evaluation is built into the roles played in any given learning context. In the case of the small group tutor role, faculty members are evaluated by each student and provide a self-evaluation to students during the course of the group process. Following the completion of the small group experience, students evaluate the faculty member as well as the overall course, and these ratings are provided to faculty and placed in their file for attention at times when promotion, tenure, and merit increase decisions are made. For those faculty members, practitioners, and others who facilitate large group sessions in both theory and practical skills, similar evaluations are completed. This process has been in place over many years and has not changed since the advent of the new curricula. However, the items being evaluated have altered to reflect the expected level and scope of graduate teaching. Student Self-assessment: Development of the OTPPI. Students admitted into the occupational therapy program are not expected to have any prerequisite courses completed during their undergraduate education. This has been the case from the very beginning. In the program itself, there are no formal courses that provide students with basic knowledge related to the foundational sciences that underlie occupational therapy practice such as anatomy, physics, biochemistry, sociology, psychology, and anthropology. It has been the long-held belief that in a pure problem-based learning 20 Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon 2 environment, the learning is accomplished through the horizontal meshing of various areas of knowledge and information; that through the integration of these sciences and bodies of knowledge, students can gain the understanding they require by using real life situations as springboards for integration and synthesis of all inputs. Consequently, recent efforts were expended to develop the Occupational Therapy Personal Progress Inventory (OTPPI), a tool that was developed from the experience of the undergraduate medical program over the past few years (Blake et al. 1996; Cunnington 2001). The OTPPI focuses on foundational knowledge that our students need in order to become practicing occupational therapists. It is not a test of the application of that knowledge in practice. The examination consists of 90 multiple-choice questions developed with the expectation that a Ã¢â¬Å"starÃ¢â¬ student would be able to answer by the time of graduation. There are three main domains included in each examination: biology (this includes anatomy, physiology, etc. ), social sciences (this includes psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc. ), and research (this includes statistics, research methods, ethics, etc. ). The breakdown of each examination is 40 percent biology, 40 percent social science, and 20 percent research. The examination is generated each term and students in both years have the same examination, with the expectation that the students in second year will achieve a higher result than those in the first year. Students receive a detailed report with their scores and a profile of how they have progressed over time. They are provided with information about their total score as well as a breakdown on each of the three domains. They also receive a zone score, which is an indication of how well they have performed on the test in comparison to the other members of the class. Students in the yellow or red zones may want to review their scores in more detail and make learning plans to address gaps that may have been identified through the examination. This tool is designed as a self-assessment measure, the individual results of which are known only to each student. We have made a conscious choice that results are not used in the summative evaluation of the students, and are intended to provide the learners with a sense of how they are progressing in accumulating knowledge relative to the basic sciences of their discipline. The students are expected to use that information to set plans in place to address weaknesses (e. g. , through problem-based tutorials, individual assignments, etc. ). The OTPPI has been a pencil and paper test so far, but steps are being taken to convert it to a web-based format. While the occupational therapy program has undertaken this initiative on a pilot basis, initial responses would indicate that students are finding the process helpful to them, although this is very new at the time of publication. Integration of Evidence-based Practice Skills into the Curricula. The integration of skills related to practicing in an evidence-based manner is seen to be critical to both programs. A detailed description of the models adopted by the occupational therapy and physiotherapy programs is found in Chapter 5. In both programs, there is a strong commitment to evidence-based practice as a central onstruct for the curriculum and a natural partner for client-centered and problem-based principles. Conclusion Since their inception, the masters entry-level programs in occupational therapy and physiotherapy have presented opportunities to revisit our history and legacy in health sciences education. In order to reflect on the overall process, the general steps for curriculum design offered by Wiers et al. (2002) will be revisited (see Table 2. 2). Chapter 2 Curriculum Development and Design 21 For us, the rationale for the curriculum was clear both from an internal and an external perspective, and the notion of forming a planning group was a natural approach to the task. Our profound commitment to involving our broad academic community was illustrated through the involvement of a wide range of individuals encompassing full-time, part-time, and sessional faculty members as well as members of the wider practice community. Such involvement was realized throughout the planning process and continues through such individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ representation on our Education, Curriculum and Admissions committees. The need to define clear general educational objectives for the curriculum was also recognized at a very early stage. We found that being able to determine the goals and directions from the outset served to facilitate the planning that followed. Assessing the educational needs of future students was assisted by our own knowledge concerning the entry-level competencies demanded by our professional regulatory colleges. Also, the connections we have with our practice communities and past graduates were invaluable in providing a background for determining the shifts necessary within the curriculum to fulfill practice expectations. Similarly, the same thoughtful reasoning was used to consider the differences of teaching and learning between undergraduate and graduate approaches to education. Applying general principles of problem-based learning to the curriculum was not a concern for us, given our long history of internalizing this philosophy. Specific difficulties arose when converting the undergraduate courses and assessment tools to the needs of a graduate program. Nevertheless, problem-based learning in many ways is a gift for this transition since it resembles closely the natural proclivities of graduate work Ã¢â¬â smaller groups, self-directedness, learner autonomy, and a degree of freedom to determine learning directions. Structuring the curriculum and creating a blueprint became different experiences for physiotherapy and occupational therapy. As mentioned previously, while the planning processes looked ostensibly similar, the manner in which the final curricular models were derived was very different (see Tables 2. 3 and 2. 4). However, after the master models were created, the processes for elaborating the blueprints and constructing study units were again very similar. Methods of student assessment tended to remain grounded in the familiar processes and tools that we had developed across our history with problem-based learning. However, as each curricular element emerged throughout the planning (e. g. , evidence-based practice, ethics, clinical skills, fieldwork) so did innovative ways to enhance the student assessment processes that were already strong. Details of these innovations will be discussed in the book chapters relating to these specific areas. Consideration of the educational organization and curriculum management model required particular attention since our lines of accountability had shifted, with the Table 2. 4. Physiotherapy curricular framework Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 Content theme Fundamentals of physiotherapy practice Fundamentals of musculoskeletal practice Fundamentals of cardiorespiratory and neurological practice Advanced neurological practice Community practice Integrated practice and professional transition 22 Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon 2 move to the School of Graduate Studies. Two slightly different models of governance emerged, with the Admissions Committee being the only shared group between physiotherapy and occupational therapy. However, both governance models reflect a central group responsible and accountable for curriculum and another group that oversees general program functioning. Curricular evaluation remains an ongoing responsibility and expectation. Chapter 13 provides a particular model for curriculum evaluation that was used by the occupational therapy program, the Program Logic Model. However, there are many ways in which faculty members can retain a clear image of what makes up a curriculum and what indicators are critical to evaluate for the success of the program overall. The three years of planning and launching the new curricula at McMaster University were years of extremely hard work, high energy and output. As we see each student cohort graduate, and receive feedback concerning our students and graduates in practice settings, we feel heartened that we appear to be on the right track. We know, however, that curriculum development is an ongoing process.
Advertising Alcohol Essay Alcohol has appeared in UK as well as around the world for many years. It plays a significant rule in the life of human. As British Medical Association in 2009, people in UK is the most of alcohol users in Europe. However, like other addictive substances, abuse of alcohol will bring a lot of bad consequences for people. Timms (2013) claimed that alcohol is the cause of psychosis, dementia, and physical problem. There are some people who claimed that government is not authorized to control the advertising of alcohol stricter than other products, but some were in the other idea that government should do it because of the bad impact from alcohol advertising to those who watch it, especially young people. This essay is aim to clarify the opinion that alcohol will result negative effect for human heath as well as social life and its advertising need to be restricted by government. Firstly, except useful of alcohol to people life, alcohol is cause of many negative problems. It is a fact that alcohol was used in to many industries such as food, heath service, and research also. Alcohol may good for heath with a limit amount. With reference from NIH (2003), in a great number of male surveyed, those who drank more than three times a week will have fewer heath risk than others who just drank less than once a week. However, according to Kenny (2012), people should not drink alcohol too much everyday. For instance, the limit of alcohol, which accepted by government, is 150Ã¢â¬â200ml for men and 100-150ml for women. Base on each habitus, drinking more than that unit may lead to sign of headache, dizzy, sickness, loss of control, etc. To reference from HallÃ¢â¬â¢s research last year, 25% of deaths increase in the last ten years was caused by alcohol. It showed that most of people cannot control their drinking, and this number is increasing day by day. Thus, it is important to limit alcohol use. Secondly, alcoholics are threatening to the social life. It may be noted that drinking alcohol is dangerous not only for people but also their family. A lot of social evil and family violence are come from drunken people. When drinking too much wine or beer, the phenomenon of losing control will appear. Then, the drinker may have negative activities to people around. For example, according to Aquarius, 30% of sexual harassments were affected by alcohol. Furthermore, unfortunately, almost alcoholic was the cause of increasing unemployment (Macpherson, 1988). Then it tends to the thievery when alcoholics do not have money to buy alcohol. From those reasons, it is clear to see that alcohol is truly a hazard to people. Turning to the other side, advertising of alcohol will also bring the bad effect to people. Alcohol advertisement, like other productÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisement, is aim to approach people and persuade them to buy as much as possible. Actually, most of alcohol advertising content was received great evaluation from people under 23 years old (Jernigan, 2010). On the other hand, although people know the negative of using alcohol, promotion by any way will make them tend to use it naturally. Wilby (2008) claimed that people are strong affected by advertising of alcohol because they are easily to receive information provided by this advertisement. Advertising of alcohol makes people, especially the youth, image that it is the daily product. Moreover, Jernigan (2010) believed that almost alcohol companies tried to insert the combination of unmeasured features relative to cultural, religious and regulatory context on their advertising. Thus, they try using it everyday like the case that they saw on advertising. In British Medical Association (2009), researchers said Ã¢â¬Å"alcohol advertising and promotion increases the likelihood that adolescents will start to use alcohol and to drink more if they are already using alcoholÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, if alcohol companies are all free to do advertising by their own way, it will be dangerous for customer insight. Finally, alcohol advertising needs to be limited to protect customer from the wrong perception about wine or beer. In fact, alcohol companies have right to do advertise like other product in market. The more alcohol that they sold, the more money of tax government can earn. Follow HMRC (2013), alcohol products brought a huge number of revenue to UK, which is ? 3,323m from April to July 2013. This number illustrated for the great tax revenue that government earned from alcohol companies. However, the damage to people heath and life are bigger than that. Government had to pay more for the accident and medical insurance that come from effect of drinking too much alcohol. Therefore, limitation to the advertising content of alcohol is really necessary. In practice, government represents for the right of people, so they need to intervene to alcohol advertising for protecting customer. Although government cannot absolutely ban all the advertising of alcohol, they need to control it. For example, Hall (2012) believed that alcohol marketing Ã¢â¬Å"require that ads not link alcohol with sex, social success, youth culture or juvenile behaviorÃ¢â¬ . In conclusion, the essay focused on difference points of whether alcohol advertising should be restricted or not, and the role of government in this situation. Obviously, whether drinking alcohol is good or not depends largely on the awareness of people who use it. Nevertheless, advertising this product widely on media will cause many bad impacts. For that reason, the strict guidelines and regulation for alcohol advertising is really needed. The government should strictly control this kind of product as well as develop propagandize for people about using alcohol in the right way. Apart from that, government also can impose more heavy taxes upon alcohol goods. This can force customer to use less alcohol and increase national income at the same time. References AQUARIUS (n. d. ) Alcohol and Violence [WWW] Aquarius. Available from: http://www. aquarius. org. uk/alcoholandviolence [Accessed 02/09/2013]. BRITISH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (2009) Under the influence: the damaging effect of alcohol marketing on young people [WWW] Available from: http://www.alcohollearningcentre. org. uk/_library/undertheinfluence_tcm41-1900621. pdf [Accessed 24/08/13]. HALL, E. (2012) Sobering up the U. K. proves difficult. Advertising Age, 83 (17), pp. 9. HMRC (2013) Tax and Duty Bulletins [WWW] HM Revenue Customs. Available from: https://www. uktradeinfo. com/Statistics/Pages/TaxAndDutybulletins. aspx [Accessed 01/09/2013]. JERNIGAN, D. (2010) The extent of global alcohol marketing and its impact on youth. Contemporary Drug Problems, 37 (1), pp. 57-89. MACPHERSON, N (1988) The Effect of Alcoholism on Earning Capacity [WWW] Economica. Available from: http://www. economica. ca/ew03_2p1. htm [Accessed 02/09/2013]. NIH (2003) Frequency of Light-to-Moderate Drinking Reduces Heart Disease Risk in Men [WWW] NIH. Available from: http://www. nih. gov/news/pr/jan2003/niaaa-08. htm [Accessed 31/08/2013]. Timms, P. (2013) Alcohol and depression [WWW] Royal College of PsychiatristsÃ¢â¬â¢ Public Education Editorial Board. Available from: http://www. rcpsych. ac. uk/mentalhealthinfoforall/problems/alcoholanddrugs/alcoholdepression. aspx [Accessed 31/08/2013]. WILBY, P. (2008) Under the influence. New Statesman, 137 (4887), pp. 17.
Friday, November 15, 2019
With the growing deviant behavior around the country, law enforcement has developed 21st century surveillance techniques and methods. Now people are continually monitored to keep the public in check and obey the laws of the state. The government can supervise citizens with a new speed monitoring technology replacing highway patrol officers. In addition to speed cameras, car manufacturers have developed an On-star system, can assist motorists who need directions, have car troubles, or even order flowers for a loved one. The ingenious system that takes individual pictures of every car that passes an operational camera and then proceeds to calculate the speed at which the vehicle is traveling at the time of the photograph. This new way of apprehending speeders causes apprehension for some drivers, fear in others, and even disgust for some owners. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The automated ticket surprises people when casually opening their mail. It gives them a reminder about the importance of following the laws even when someone thinks they are not being monitored. But the main argument surrounding the heated topic of computer-generated Highway Patrol is the unknown driver of the vehicle. The tickets are written to the owner of the vehicle, the owner is not always the driver consequently, unfairly penalizing unsuspecting people. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Personal surveillance has gained in popularity in the past couple of years. Cameras are hidden through houses, trip meters in cars record the top speed and number of miles each day, and an assistance program is installed in select automobiles. The On-star system assists owners of GMC cars with driving directions, car troubles, and theft using the global positioning system. A private company via satellite that can access the vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s location, model, and year operates this system. The technicians answering all the calls from the owners of the cars have complete access to personal information politely addressing the caller by name. This system deters criminals from stealing cars equipped with On-star because the operators can easily locate a stolen vehicle. Therefore, the police can track down the stolen car in a matter of minutes, with the help of the On-star company. It is an uncanny feeling to have an On-star technician give a driver the exact position of their vehicle. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The trip meters allow owners of a vehicle to check on other drivers of that car. By recording the date, distance traveled, and top speed of the day, the owner can monitor other driverÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressiveness and honesty.