Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Greasy lake by T. Coraghessan Boyle

Greasy lake by T. Coraghessan Boyle Greasy Lake by T. Coraghessan Boyle and Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? by Joyce Carol Oates are two works that have the generalized theme of death in them. They may differ in contextual ways, but the deeper theme they share is present. The more in depth comparisons are about teenagers trying to find their way through life as portrayed through their looks and actions, and the thought of how you perceive yourself can get you into trouble. Greasy Lake contains teenage bad boys trying to find their self identity, and Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been surrounds a girl who doesnt know the power of attention she attracts, until its too late. In Greasy Lake the main characters call themselves bad characters. They are putting on a faade of leather jackets, mischief and rock and roll. These main characters were Digby, Jeff and the narrator, who really didnt know what they were getting into late one night at Greasy Lake. What started out as a joke led to a string of unfortunate events, and how the three boys in the end realized that they were indeed, not bad characters anymore; hence the teenage self exploration. From a fight, to attempted rape, to the smashing of the narrators mothers car, one night was all it took for those boys to see that they werent who they thought they were. This all ties in with the theme because of the things that are going through the narrators head as he leads the readers through the events. The whole scene is dark to begin with. Its late at night when the boys arrive at the lake, they end up in trouble with a big greasy character, as they call him, and the whole lake is surrounded by death and decay. This can be an immediate connection to death. Another way to show discovery is how at the end of the story it reads as this, when the boys are ready to drive home: I just looked at her. I thought I was going to cry. (403) I believe at this point the narrator realizes that there will always be someone out there that will be tougher than you, and that will get you in the end. He realizes that sure, they were big and bad to themselves, until they met their match. This shows change in the characters which is a big indication of theme. Another indication would be the title, because greasy is generally something that is used in a bad way, so it doesnt in any way reflect life. Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? is also, like stated before, about teenage perception and how it can or will get you into trouble. There is a girl, named Connie, who thinks that she is so pretty and is a completely vain character. She believes that she can get any guy she wants, and wants any guy she can get, until she attracts unwanted attention. This is a story in part created through a serial killer. Being about a serial killer alone shows darkness and death, but there are other examples of this theme. One would be how Connie would always sneak out with her friends to the burger joint across the street. This is an act of defying parents. She defies her parents because they treat her as if they dont care about her at all. This is also something that is negative and could relate to death. Connie ends up being so nave about who she may be showing off too, that she becomes trapped, alone, in her own home with a man outside, coming to kidnap her. This is another similarity to Boyles story, because there is a change in the character here as well. Connie changes because she goes from getting any guy she wants, and thinking that shes invincible, to be completely vulnerable in her own home. An example of how full of herself she is, is right in the first couple of sentences: She was fifteen and she had a quick nervous giggling habit of craning her neck to look into mirrors, or checking other peoples faces to make sure her own was alright. (427) This alone shows how all she cares about are looks. An example of confidence and then vulnerability comes when the kidnapper, Arnold Friend, comes to her house to get her. At first she is excited and plays it cool, thinking she can handle any situation. The feeling quickly changes though, when she realizes this is one situation she cant get herself out of, becoming vulnerable. Therefore, both Greasy Lake and Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? have a shared theme, being that how you perceive yourself can get you into trouble. The boys from Greasy Lake met their match and learned that they really werent bad characters and Connie from Where Are You Going had a more unfortunate demise when she realized being too confident can get you into a bad situation. The stories also had recurring instances of death, from the decaying lake to Arnold Friend being a dark and scary character to Connie. All in all, even though the plots may have been different, the theme of death and teenage self exploration are present in these works.

Sources of Government Revenue in South Africa

Sources of Government Revenue in South Africa Topic Describe and explain sources of revenue for national, provincial and local spheres of government in South Africa. What are some of the ways in which government has encouraged the provincial and local spheres to generate additional sources of revenue to address the growing needs of communities? Introduction Revenue for South Africa is a massive task due to the corruption taking place. , all 3 spheres of government must work together to stop corruption. Since 2012 an anti corruption team has been set up to solve this issue. This assignment will focus on ways the government tries to encourage other speheres to generate their own income. In a more specific detail this assignment will focus on ways national government promote ways to generate income for provincial and local government. This is not an easy task and thus the challenges is also a main concern and will outline the challenges and possible solutions to overcome this. Solutions will be outlined in a detailed way to overcome the issues we are facing , the definitions of the terms as well as the Significance of the Study. This assignment will conclude the information gathered and what steps needs to be taking to achieve greater results. How does national government get income? Taxes collected are the main source of revenue of national government. 97,1% of revenue of national government was collected as tax. The main sources of tax for national government are taxes paid by individuals, taxes paid by businesses, value added tax and excises(statssa.gov) Taxes on income, profits and capital gains are attributed either to individuals or to businesses. These taxes are generally levied on wages, salaries, other compensation, interest, rent, capital gains, profits of businesses, and taxable portions of pension. The first type of tax and income for the government is Value-added tax(VAT) .VAT is a tax on goods and services collected in stages by enterprises but which is ultimately charged in full to the final purchaser. VAT is usually charged at 14% on consumers final goods and is included in the price you pay for most items such as food items , petrol ,etc. the second type of tax collected by the government is excises tax. Excises are taxes levied on particular products and may be imposed at any stage of production or distribution. Excise duties are imposed mostly on high-volume daily consumable products (e.g. alcohol and tobacco products) as well as certain non-essential or luxury items (e.g. electronic equipment and cosmetics). Administrative fees are also another income for government . administration fees are similar to user charges, but differ in the sense that the service (or benefit) received in return for the fee is defined rather broadly and imprecisely.Such fees include business licences, television licences, diamond export rights, fishing licences, and motor vehicle licences. The dreaded parking ticket and speeding fine can also be added to the list. Administrative fees and fines are insignificant sources of revenue. South Africa’s major source of income is borrowing and taking loans from other countries to sustain the economy and the needs of the citizens Government can borrow from its own citizens and from abroad. Borrowing is often used to finance capital expenditure. Borrowed funds must be repaid at some point and therefore amount to deferred taxes. Because lenders have to be adequately compensated for current consumption forgone, it is imperative that borrowed money should be spent on productive activities. Sometimes government uses borrowed funds  to finance current consumption, a practice that cannot always be defended on economic grounds.   Classification of taxes There are two types of taxes such as direct and indirect. below are the two types of taxes discussed and defined. Direct Taxation Direct taxes are imposed directly on individuals and companies (e.g. personal income  tax and company tax). This distinction fundamentally revolves around the issue of tax incidence  (i.e. the question of who really pays the tax). It would suffice to say that we simply cannot tell with certainty in advance what the outcome is going to be. The second type of tax is Indirect taxes .indirect taxes are taxes which are likely to be shifted and are imposed on commodities or market transactions. Examples are excise ditties and fuel levies. It is also more difficult to adjust the tax rate to the personal circumstances of the consumer. In the  case of indirect taxes it is often possible to shift the burden of the tax to someone else. There are various types of taxes which government collects revenue from. A primary source of wealth tax for the government is property tax. The property tax base can be defined very broadly to include real property (realty) and personal property (e.g. furniture, motor vehicles, shares, bonds, and bank deposits). Another important tax is the capital gains tax. Capital gains can be defined as increases in the net value of assets over a period (e.g.an accounting period or fiscal year).the most popular type of tax is the wealth tax .Income and consumption are flow concepts since both are measured over a period of time. Income consists of wages, rental income from property, interest on savings, dividends on shares, and so on. In contrast to income, wealth is a stock concept which is measured at a particular point in time. Acts and laws pertaining to national government revenue The main act with regard to national revenue is the Public finance management act.The Public Finance Management Act, 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999) (as amended by Act No. 29 of 1999) The Act promotes the objective of good financial management in order to maximise service delivery through the effective and efficient use of the limited resources and focuses mainly on national and provincial spheres of government.(treasury.gov.za). the second and one of the most discussed about act is the National Revenue Fund . There is a National Revenue Fund into which all money received by the national government must be paid, except money reasonably excluded by an Act of Parliament. (sa constitution) How does the National budget effect other speheres of government The national budget plays a major role . each year the budget gets less for the community for goods and services. Our recent budget speech , more money will be spent on eskom rather than other essential needs of the community . with a limited budget , revenue will be hard to receive for other spheres and thus have to generate their own income How provincial government gets revenue Provinces have little revenue of their own but there is a process governed by the Division of Revenue Act as amended which enables a formula to be used so that provinces receive shares of revenue collected nationally. Provinces then have some discretion as to allocation of what they receive. government research in 2008 showed that Mpumalanga spent a lower percentage on health than did Western Cape as an example. The needs for the community is growing and with a limited budget and corruption in national government revenue for provinces becomes less each year. President zuma has now given more funds to eskom to settle the energy crisis thus making it less for other departments.(SONA). The only way now for provincial government to provide services is to get back to basics. In a recent interview with our provincial mayor, getting back to basics is a must.(daily news) . Kwa zulu natal relays mainly with tourism. 2014 has had the most tourism compared to any other year. Also each province relays on own source of revenue such as provincial taxes and fee ,license and fines. A government may expose taxes other than income tax ,etc. Durban also has one of the biggest harbours in the world and receives a lot from custom tax. Johanessburg has the biggest international airport in Africa also benefits a lot from foreigners for tourism. National government is also aiding provinces with grants due to the service deliver protest. Provinces still have little revenue of their own and are highly dependent on the national sources. It is fortunate that this is governed by legislation. The national government cannot discriminate against opposition controlled provinces such as WC now and KZN previously. There are also joint meetings between provinces and national government which look at issues like resource allocation. How does national government encourage revenue for provincial sphere One of the main ways provinces gets a share from national is the Financial and Fiscal Commission (FFC). The FFC is an independent body that is set up under the Constitution to advise government on the portion of revenue that should go to provincial and local government to subsidise services for poor people. But these funding are not adequate ,thus the provinces have to generate own source of income . generating income is not an easy task for the provinces as the unemployment rate is rising each year and citizens don’t have enough buying power or to support any fund raising activities. South Africa is known for the variety of sports we play and throughout the year there is various international and local events happening. Each province generate income through sports , generating income from the citizens via the sales of tickets ,etc. cricket ,soccer and rugby are the main sports in south Africa with a huge support of fans. South Africa is currently in the bid for the 2022 common wealth games which is to take place in Durban . This can contribute to a even higher revenue for that year for the province as over 20 countries participate in these games with tourism for all over the world. Conferences is also taking place in south Africa and Durban ICC remains positive, new destinations and Convention Centres are being developed throughout the world, which will result in even greater competition for conferences and events in the future. Each province also has a main attraction and highlight to attract visitors , example: Durban has the beautiful beaches , ushaka marine world and a diverse of cultures. Cape town has robben island , table mountain and the beautiful scenery. Johannesburg is the hub for film and tv casting , with tall skyscrapers and movie studios , as well as theme parks , shopping malls , and best airport in Africa. Laws and policies pertaining to provincial sphere to promote revenue and to provide services. One of the main laws which was recently passed was the Inter-governmental Relations Framework Act. It was passed to make sure that the principles in Chapter Three of the Constitution on cooperative government are implemented. The Act seeks to set up mechanisms to coordinate the work of all spheres of government in providing services, alleviating poverty and promoting development. (etu.org.za) Another structure in place is the Provincial Inter-governmental Structures. This act is about the relationships between the three spheres of government The Premier in each province is responsible for coordinating relationships between national, provincial and local government in the province. A Premier’s Inter-governmental Forum consists of the Premier, the local government MEC, other MECs, Metro and other mayors. (etu.org.za).National government also contributes by new laws which makes new business to open easier and funding if you follow the BBBEE, Act, 2013 (Act No. 46 of 2013). Broad- Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE) is a specific government policy to advance economic transformation and enhance the economic participation of black people in the South African economy.(seda.org.za) How local government gets revenue Municipalities get their revenue from three sources. First, they raise some of their own revenue by charging all people who own property such as land, houses and businesses rates based on the value of their property. The second way they raise revenue is by charging tariffs for services like water, electricity, refuse removal and the use of municipal facilities such as sports grounds. Some municipalities can generate a lot of revenue in this way, while poorer municipalities raise virtually nothing and are almost totally dependent on funding transfers from national government, which is the third source of revenue for municipalities. Municipalities also receive funding from national government in the form of conditional grants . (localgovernmentaction.org) Challenges for local government Local government relays more on taxes. There has been many challenges regarding taxes as more than 50 percent of south Africa lives in informal settlements and don’t pay taxes.In the past, municipalities have not spent all the money allocated to them through this grant due to a lack of capacity and the mismanagement of funds. During the 2010/11 financial year, for example, 272 municipalities in South Africa did not spend a quarter of what was available to them and some of this money had to be returned to Treasury. This has most certainly contributed to the slow pace at which municipalities are providing infrastructure for services. (localgovernmentaction.org) Although funding from national and provincial government are given to local government , many ward municipal managers do not do their jobs to monitor and evaluate the needs for the community thus from above funds was given back to the treasury. How does national government encourage revenue for local sphere National government encourages various ways to get income. First they offer many incentives in the form of money. These usually occur if they follow the BBBEE procedure. Secondly , fund raising take place , many NGOS often have fund raising schemes to help support a needy course or to fund problems in the area. NGO’s play a vital role and a big help to the government for providing goods and services to the community. Examples of NGO’S are â€Å"feed the babies fund†, and NORSA. Municipalities with the most clean audits also gets rewards. The link between national sphere , provincial sphere and local sphere The different spheres of government depend on each other for support in project implementation, and regular communication is essential. For example, when a municipality proposes the development of a new township in its Integrated Development Plan, health and education services have to be provided by provincial government. Water services have to be provided by national government, and finances for housing development have to be transferred from national to provincial government from where it goes to the housing developers approved by the municipality. Laws and policies pertaining to local sphere to promote revenue and to provide services. The first act is the Municipal systems act 32 of 2000 . It is a Framework for planning, performance management system, effective use of resources and organisational change. , it also provides Core principles and mechanisms and processes necessary for community participation. Chapter 4 of the Act deals with community participation and define the need for the development of community participation. Another act which relates to this is the Municipal Finance Management Act 56 of 2003. This act regulates budget and financial management practices in municipalities and Helps to maximise the capacity of municipalities to deliver services to all communities. Integrated development plan (IDP) The IDP is a 5 year plan by the government to eridacte poverty and to create jobs . Every municipality has to draw up an Integrated Development Plan (IDP). An Integrated Development Plan is a super plan for an area that gives an overall framework for development. It aims to co-ordinate the work of local and other spheres of government in a coherent plan to improve the quality of life for all the people living in an area. It should take into account the existing conditions and problems and resources available for development. The plan should look at economic and social development for the area as a whole Conclusion From the above discussion all spheres of government must work together to achieve greater results. They need to be inter related and distinctive. All the steps and polices must be implemented to achieve best results and a corruption free society and country. The national budget as we learnt also plays a vital role in the revenue for all 3 spheres of government. Ward councillor’s and mayors have a big task to maintain and improve conditions for society. There are many challenges which all spheres need to overcome in order to maintain a good service delivery to the community Reference page websites Polity.org.za,. Local Government: Municipal Finance Management Act (No. 56 Of 2003). N.p., 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015 Acts.co.za,. Municipal Finance Management Act, 2003 (Act No. 56 Of 2003). N.p., 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. Etu.org.za,. Inter-Governmental Relations And Planning In Government. N.p., 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. Parliament.gov.za,. N.p., 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. Mogalecity.gov.za,. Mogale City. N.p., 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. Tshwane.gov.za,. Home. N.p., 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. Localgovernmentaction.org,. Municipal Budget | Local Government Action. N.p., 2015. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. Books moeti, kabelo. Public Finance Fundementals. 2nd ed. cape town: juta co, 2014. Print. Introduction to local government , 2nd ed. Cape town :juta Journals k, phago. Democracy In South Africa. Journal of Public Administration vol 49.3 (2014): n. pag. Print. Politeia :Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa 0256-8845 Africanus Department of Development Administration and Politics, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa 0304-615X

Monday, January 20, 2020

myths :: essays research papers

Myths are entertaining stories; they cover the basis from Heroin adventures, tales of heroism, passionate love stories, Monsters, Gods and much more. In their time myths would serve many important functions for the society and culture that believed in them. Myths attempt to explain the unanswerable questions to provide reasons that things are the way they are. Classical myths are terrific entertaining stories, the most common are of the Greek and Romans. For the ancients, they had a religious significance. They explain the creation of the universe, the condition of the natural and social words, the authenticity of Kings or the beginning of religious rituals. Myths had various functions in society, one of them was religious function, and stories that concern themselves with the nature and actions of Gods and the way they relate to the human race. The myth would inform the Romans and the Greeks which Gods they should petition for specific types of help. Some Gods were Goddess Hestia, for the safety of house and family. Athena, for wisdom and courage, Demeter for an abundant harvest and Zeus for Justice and military might. Myths, also explore all aspects of life. Love can be painful as in the night of Echo and Narcissus, both Echo and Narcissus remain solitary tragic figures, cursed with loneliness and tormented by a love they can never have. Myths can serve to justify or validate social standing or political power in the world. The Romans for example used mythology to establish lineage for the rulers. Roman myths showed their line of Kings and later emperors to be descended not only form great heroes, but from the gods themselves. The cosmological function of myths is to help us understand more fully who we are, Questions like who am I? How am I to conduct my self, where am I going? How can I best serve this world? The shaman was the one person that you could go to get answers to things that where unknown. Most of the time he was the old wise man that knew a lot, he was like a teacher to the people, his role was a mediator between people and spirits, they were historians they kept most of the stories and happenings of the community and would pass them on the future generations. Today this person is called a Scientist, they play that same role they give us answers to the unknown and they keep records of it and pass on to future generation and

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Professional Sports - It’s Time to End the Corruption of Baseball Essay

It’s Time to End the Corruption of Baseball Baseball used to be a simple game, associated with the smell of hot dogs, the sweet dew of the night air as fans rose for the seventh inning stretch, and the beautiful spectacle of the field with its freshly cut grass and newly chalked base lines. Now it seems like each game is won by at least five runs, the stadiums are half empty, and the pride of a baseball radio announcer, once an honorable career, has dwindled along with the game. Additionally, since 1976 players’ salaries have increased 168% a year, numbers too high to be blamed on inflation (Breton 4). These current conditions reflect the growing corruption of baseball. Why is there corruption in baseball? It’s simple; players are asking for more money, which only big market teams can afford. If a player comes up through the league in a small market team and becomes a success, he demands more money, which the team can’t afford, so he moves to a big market team that will satisfy his demands. For example, look at Cincinnati Reds’ former players Bret Boone, Dimitri Young, Pokey Reese, Denny Neagle, Mike Cameron, and Jeff Shaw, all players of all-star caliber now playing for teams paying a bigger salary. This causes the problem of uncompetitive small market teams, who make up 44% of baseball (Player 1). With nearly half of the league being uncompetitive, it doesn’t make for a really surprising season. This lack of competition snowballs into corrupting other parts of the game. There is a steady decrease in attendance; the Cincinnati Reds total attendance for 2001 was about two million, a twenty four percent decrease from the 2000 season (Cincinnati 1). To make up for lagging attendance there is an increase in ticket pri... ... Lewis, Corey. â€Å"Salary Cap, Anyone? Yankee Wealth Killing Baseball.† 18 Feb. 2002. < http://www.thedailyworld.com>. Mann, Dinn. â€Å"Behind the Seams with Bud Selig.† 27 March 2002. < http://www.mlb.com>. Plimpton, George. Out of My League. New York: Lyons and Burford, Publishers, 1961. Smizik, Bob. â€Å"Baseball Can’t Bear Costs for Salary Cap.† 18 Feb. 2002. < http://www.post-gazette.com>. Unknown. â€Å"2001 Standings: Regular.† 18 Feb. 2002. < http://www.espn.go.com>. Unknown. â€Å"Cincinnati Reds Attendance.† 27 March 2002. < http://www.cbs.sportsline.com>. Unknown. â€Å"Fehr: Forget about It.† 18 Feb. 2002. < http://www.sportsillustrated.cnn.com>. Unknown. â€Å"Player Salaries Opening Day 2001.† 18 Feb. 2002. . Unknown. â€Å"World Series Winners.† 27 March 2002. < http://www.historicbaseball.com>.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Native Americans vs. African Americans Essay

In today’s society there are many people living in poverty. All across America there are different projects and reservations where the less fortunate reside. Statistics show that mostly minorities live in these different locations. Native Americans and African Americans are two of the more popular races living in these places. The group suffering the most in these situations is the youth. Although both Native American and African American children living on a reservation or in the projects experience a terrible community, have little to no faith, and a broken family structure, African American youth living in the projects have it worse than Native American children living on a reservation. First, one of the most common living situations for less fortunate African Americans is in the projects. A project is a public living environment that is government owned. Although these buildings are government owned they are far from nice looking. Most of the buildings have no windows, are run down, dirty, and old. The government’s main goal is to maintain affordable housing not to make them the best looking homes in town. The projects aren’t a good environment for a child to be raised. Throughout these neighborhoods different gangs can be found. These gangs are built to defend the different areas in the projects. The gangs bring major violence to the area and are one of the main causes of death. At a young age children join these gangs and are raised to be violent. Many of them decorate the buildings they are living in with graffiti expressing their gang colors, symbols, or motto. In contrast, while Native American youth also live in poor housing, the environment is safer than the projects. A reservation is an area set aside for a specific type of land use or activity, or for use by a particular group of people, mostly Native Americans. Similar to the projects, houses on a reservation are old, beat down, and dirty. The houses on a reservation are government owned as well. Although these two locations are very similar they also differ. The reservation is a safer place then the projects. On the reservation there is a couple cases of mild violence but they aren’t as severe as the violence in the projects. Therefore, the reservations environment is a better environment than the projects. Secondly, many of the young people have no faith growing up in the projects. A lot of them believe their only way out of the projects is to become a basketball or football player or to become a top selling rap artist. At as young as sixteen years of age most African American males end up in jail, deceased, or selling drugs. A lot of them are also lead to believe that if they don’t do what every other man on the streets is doing, then they won’t make it anywhere in life. On the reservation the kids believe their only way out is to become NBA players or â€Å"powwowers†. Powwower’s are traditional Native American cheerleaders or dancers. Much like the African Americans growing up in the projects, the life expectancy rate for those living on a reservation is in the mid forties. Considering that both of these locations are in the United States mid forties is very young of age. Many of these people don’t live very long because they don’t have enough money to take care of themselves as well as their families. They also aren’t able to live a healthy lifestyle which shortens their days. Death is common in the two locations which leaves these two young groups wondering what’s beyond the age forty. Lastly, family structure is very important in a household. In the projects many of the homes lack a very strong family structure. Children growing up in the projects nine times out of ten don’t have both parents in the home. Most of them are drug dealers, alcoholics, prostitutes, or doing any and everything to try and provide for the child. Although these parents are trying to provide for their children a lot of the time they are also on welfare. Moreover, these children’s parents aren’t ever around, they sometimes go days without having anything to eat. Many of the young men follow after the footsteps of their father, older brother, or uncles which is why this cycle has continued for so long. Native Americans typically stick together as a unit. According to Sherman Alexie, an award winning author who grew up on a reservation, â€Å"Native American children are taught to be suspicious of Caucasian people. † Native Americans teach this to their children because there are many people in America that are against minorities and believe that just because they are the majority they’re better. A lot of the parents on a reservation go from job to job not being able to keep one job for a long period of time. Many of these parents are also alcoholics. On the other hand, some of these families on these reservations are very family oriented unlike the African American families in the projects. These Native American families have up to seventeen family members living in one house. They keep their families very close and are very supportive of one another rather then being against each other like African Americans. The parents watch over their children to make sure they don’t go down the wrong path in life. Although these families are experiencing hard times they cheer each other up and manage to smile every once in a while. Therefore, the Native Americans family structure is stronger then African Americans. In conclusion, Native American youth living on a reservation have it better then African American youth living in the projects. Both of these minorities are going through some hardships. From alcoholic parents to not having anything to eat they both are suffering as young children. Native American families provide a safer living environment, work harder, and look after one another, where as African Americans are against one another, on the streets all day, and are strongly associated with violence. As the years go on these families are hoping that the government will separate people in the projects and those living on reservations and provide them both with a better living situation. If these environments are separated the United States will be one step closer to eliminating violence in America.

Editing Within Digital Filmmaking Essay

Lori Landay elucidates that in the present age of digital transformations, communications and storytelling, the saying of McLuhan that â€Å"the medium is the message† can be further said that the media is the mix. Digital forms of narrative are not only characterized by their mixed, hybrid forms and content, but by their recombinations. It is used to draw the spectator into the mix in many different ways. It is through the mixing of the different degrees of non-linearity and interactivity that digital narratives are able to form different kinds of digital spectatorship. She looks at three films and states that in different yet interconnected ways, these ways can tend to divert the spectator from the traditional ways of finding meaning to one’s narrative. Different modes are able to elicit different ways of storytelling and fresh ways of looking, thereby, editing scenes in the process. Source 2: Tsai, Tabitha and Czarnecki, Kelly . Digital filmmaking for the 21st century. Library Journal, 2/1/2008. Machinima Goes Mainstream. Article Retrieved June 9, 2008 http://journal. media-culture. org. au/0104/trans. php Machinima is a filmmaking genre that is used in order to shape video for the 21st century. It is a new term that is coined from the words machine and cinema and is a genre of filmmaking that was originally conceived by gamers in the 1990s. During the past years, machinima has gone more mainstream and creativity has been maximized to the limits. Machinima is filmmaking that is done within a real-time, 3-D kind of environment. Basically, machinima uses real-world filmmaking techniques within an interactive virtual environment where characters and events are controlled by humans, scripts, or artificial intelligence. The video games are the ones that provide the settings, props, costumes, and characters which are needed to be able to tell an original story. Filmmakers are able to capture actual footage as MTV Central and video games like Sims 2 have in-game recording options which help the filmmakers to capture footage. For this to be accessed, there is a need for a screen capture software program in order to import game environments where there are no built-in machinima tools. Remixing audio and video content is also among the newer gadgets available among budding machinimists. Source 3: Theodosakis, Nikos. How Digital Filmmaking Develops Higher-Order Thinking Skills. Article Retrieved June 9, 2008 at: http://www. vste. org/publications/journal/attach/vj_1602/vj_1602_08. pdf This article posits that in the classroom, the process of filmmaking entails that students must be able to imagine what they will need in order to come up with a movie. They need to develop a strategy that involves managerial skills such as planning, production and editing where they will start gathering a logical series of events. The author logical lays out what is entailed in the planning stage emphasizing that feature films are rarely shot in a sequential order in order to save time, money and effort. As part of editing, the scenes are grouped according to location or actors or even according to equipment availability. Analytical skills must also be present to a large measure so that during the editing process, one can see multiple takes of the same shots and multiple shots of the same scene and then decide which information best illustrates the message being set forth (Theodosakis). The author wants to point out that the goal of filmmaking in the classroom must be executed so that students will be able to experience these skills in preparation for the future use in their own worlds beyond the classroom.

Friday, January 3, 2020

`` Wuthering Heights `` By Emily Bronte - 2038 Words

Romantic philosophers proposed that every person or entity had its own individual universe that only the person or entity itself could observe. This Romantic self was desperate to connect to others and yearned for love, a mutual connection between two understanding parties that could allow the lonely self to access a universe outside of its own. If the longing to love and connect with this other person was a legitimate desire from the person’s true energy, then Romantic philosopher William Blake would say that it was pure and correct and must be followed. Tragically, many people fail to understand their energies and chase after what they think they want but what will bring no real joy to them. To truly love and connect to another, one must†¦show more content†¦When Catherine I returns from Thrushcross Grange, she is unrecognizable to Heathcliff because she has evolved into a more complete version of herself that he cannot accept. Cathy I tries to embrace Heathcliff in a hug and, as William Blake would say, momentarily touch souls, but Heathcliff adopts a â€Å"black†, â€Å"cross† expression, because the Catherine I that has returned is not the Catherine I that he wanted back (Brontà « 42). Heathcliff’s â€Å"shame and pride [throw] double gloom over his countenance, and [keep] him immoveable† (Brontà « 42). He stares at the girl he thought was his other half and cannot find anything familiar under the perfect dress and neat coils of silken hair. Heathcliff is â€Å"immoveable† in that he will not be swayed to the new Cathy I’s side, even if she contained this version of herself within all along. He mistakenly thinks that he is only in love with the Catherine I whom he thought he knew, rather than the person that Catherine I actually is, which includes Thrushcross Grange’s influence. By forcing Cathy I into the walls of his perception, Heathcliff erases her personhood completely. While Heathclif f clings to the Catherine I that he remembers, Cathy I believes that if she belongs partially at Thrushcross Grange, then he must as well. Cathy I likes the person she became at Thrushcross Grange because she always had some Grange in her