Wednesday, July 31, 2019
William Stafford and Randall Jarrell There are two poetry writers that have wrote very good pomes and have quite a few that are popular. To compare and contrast two, it would have to be Ã¢â¬Å"Traveling through the DarkÃ¢â¬ by William Stafford and Ã¢â¬Å"The Death of the Ball Turret GunnerÃ¢â¬ by Randall Jarrell. These two authors have a different way and style they write there poems, that is why it makes sense to look at these two really close and really see how they write and how they get the message across. Both StaffordÃ¢â¬â¢s and JarrellÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is in the book read in class so having read these two works it is somewhat familiar what they are about.But further reading is needed to really understand what these poets are trying to say and what they are writing about. So it is best to read these poems or any poem in general, more than one time. Just so it becomes easier to understand the words and the theme. To compare and contrast these two poems every detail makes a difference because that way the reader understands what is going on in the poem. When a poet begins to write a poem there is always that one message they are trying to get across or a little story they are trying to tell.So as a reader, it is important to read a poem more than once to really understand it. Imagery is a big key that both of these poets use. This is good when writing so that the readers are interested when reading the poem and to really draw mental pictures in the heads of the readers. Metaphor is also a big tool used in poetry, and without that many poems do not make sense. In both of these poems there is metaphor but it is not very clear to see sometimes. A lot of poets just ramble on with words and sometimes is not clear on what they are trying to say.So with these two poems you see how one is easier to read than the other. In William StaffordÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Traveling through the DarkÃ¢â¬ it is very clear on what he is writing about and the theme is simple to u nderstand. But in Randall JarrellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Death of the Ball Turret GunnerÃ¢â¬ it is not that easy to get if you just read the poem once. Randall Jarrell is a type of writer that criticizes a lot of other writings he does not like. He gives a lot of harsh criticism because he is a big fan of literature so by seeing work that is badly written he is not afraid to come out and say something about it.But many other writers say over time he softens up because he is worried about the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s extinction. Even though he was really tough on other writers work, JarrellÃ¢â¬â¢s passion for writing shows in his poetry. His poetry is more of the modern plain style which other famous writers use like Robert Frost. Jarrell likes to write about ordinary experiences that connect to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. Not all of his poetry makes sense like Ã¢â¬Å"The Death of the Ball Turret GunnerÃ¢â¬ if it is only read once. Jarrell writes in a colloquial voice and mostly all hi s poems have no development in them.He will write about a topic and just go one and one but you do not see what he is really talking about at first. When you read Randall JarrellÃ¢â¬â¢s work there is a lot of critical thinking that is involved and a lot of questions. For example in this poem the title says Ã¢â¬Å"The Death of the Ball Turret GunnerÃ¢â¬ and by seeing the word Ã¢â¬Å"GunnerÃ¢â¬ it makes sense to say this poem might be about war or a fighter plane. JarrellÃ¢â¬â¢s other work was a lot about war because that is what he enjoyed to write about, so it only seems right that this poem is about war. But when you read it at first it seems as if he may be writing about an abortion.Because he uses the word mother, it may throw off the reader but he uses a lot of imagery in the poem, so when you think about it, it may connect to an abortion. The Ã¢â¬Å"GunnerÃ¢â¬ in this case could be the doctor and the Ball Turret could be the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb. Since he connects a lot of his work to war the Ball Turret could be the sphere like space where the pilot of a jet fighter would be in and the Gunner of course would be the enemy. And when the character in the poem was attacked he went upside down in the turret, little sphere, and looked like a fetus in the womb.But when a reader reads it for the first time it is not as clear, so it is safe to say that Randall JarrellÃ¢â¬â¢s type of writing is not as clear and makes the reader think while reading. JarrellÃ¢â¬â¢s poems were meant to have the reader really think about what they are reading to a point where one might get confused. So now there is the other side where it is much easier to read and comprehend what the author is saying. StaffordÃ¢â¬â¢s work is mostly always dealing with the outdoors and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s mainly because of where Stafford grew up. He is also known for his unique method of composition and soft spoken voice.You can easily tell by reading his work because he does not try to c onfuse the reader and just gets the main point of the poem out there. Unlike Jarrell, Stafford goes into a lot of detail and uses imagery to show the reader what to think about while reading. For example, his poem Ã¢â¬Å"Traveling through the DarkÃ¢â¬ is taken place along a roadside near the woods. The poem is viewed as a dramatic lyric because Stafford develops the scene just like a playwright. You have the characters (speaker, deer); setting (nighttime on Road) complication (Ã¢â¬Å"swerve might make more deadÃ¢â¬ ); action (Ã¢â¬Å"draggedÃ¢â¬ ) climax (Ã¢â¬Å"pushed deer over the edgeÃ¢â¬ ).When you first read the poem it seems simple, that there is a dead deer on the road and the speaker pulls over and pushes the dead deer over the bank into the river. Yes the dead deer is pregnant because the character explains how he could feel the warmth on her belly, and yes he decides to roll it into the bank to prevent accidents. But why does Stafford write about a dead deer on the road. It is to show how a person unexpectedly faces a crisis which tests his or her moral sensitivity in everyday life. And that is what Stafford mostly writes about, everyday life situations.So by looking at these two poets you can see that Randall Jarrell likes to write with so much passion and wants it to be so perfect that sometimes his work is not easily understood. Jarrell wants the reader to think about what they are really reading, but sometimes bores the reader. Now William Stafford also wants the reader to think about the theme but it is much clearer on how he sets up his poems. He uses more and clear imagery so that the reader can see what the main point to the poem is. And these two pieces of work are good examples on how these two poets write their feelings and thoughts down.
Time value of money This refers to the principle that a dollar on hand today has more value than a dollar received sometime in the future. Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., & Titman, S. (2014). Financial Management: Principles and Applications (12th ed.). : Pearson Education, Inc.. Efficient market Refers to the type of market where everyone receives the same time of information and prices are reflected based on this information. Business Dictionary.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/efficient-market.html Primary versus secondary market Primary market refers to the securities a company sells for the first time for the purpose of raising money. Securities traded after initial investment are done through the secondary market. In the primary market, the issuing firm receives the money; in the secondary market if the shareholder of the firm decides to sell he receives the money. Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., & Titman, S. (2014). Financial Management: Principles and Applications (12th ed.). : Pearson Education, Inc.. Risk-return tradeoff This principle is based on the risk that investors are willing to take for a promise of higher returns on investments. Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., & Titman, S. (2014). Financial Management: Principles and Applications (12th ed.). : Pearson Education, Inc.. Agency (principal and agent problems) Refers to the problem companies face in motivating their managers who act as agents in pursuing the interests of the owners (shareholders). Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., & Titman, S. (2014). Financial Management: Principles and Applications (12th ed.). : Pearson Education, Inc.. Market information and security prices and information asymmetry Security prices change as information is provided to all investors. In contrast in information Asymmetry one party may benefit from having more sources of information and therefore making better decisions. What is Information Asymmetry. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.investorwords.com/2461/information_asymmetry.html Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., & Titman, S. (2014). Financial Management: Principles and Applications (12th ed.). : Pearson Education, Inc.. Agile and lean principles The lean principle in Finance refers to the production practice that companies use in which they target to minimize waste and use the the least amount of resources to meet the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Organizations that use agile type of processes allow to work on smaller projects to revamp production, maximize collaboration and allow for more flexible schedules. What is Project Management. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.villanovau.com/resources/project-management/what-is-project-management/#.VFKo2vldW So Return on investment ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a form of investment measurement that shows how efficiently a company is using its resources. This ratio is usually expressed as a percentage. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/return-on-investment-ROI.html Cash flow and a source of value This is the money a company has after it has paid its bills and after it has used the money necessary to operate the business. The value of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s investment lies in the amount of cash flow available to spend. The Free Dictionary. (2009). Retrieved from http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cash+flow Project management This refers to the processes that involves all aspects of a project, ensuring that it is done well, on time and within budget. Processes in Project management include initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing. What is Project Management. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.villanovau.com/resources/project-management/what-is-project-management/#.VFKo2vldW So Outsourcing and offshoring Outsourcing happens when a company contracts the services of a third party to do the work for the purpose to increase efficiency and lower costs. As opposed to offshoring this does not have to happen out of the country. Offshoring happens when a company moves abroad to reduce the costs of running its operations. What is the Difference between Outsourcing and Offshoring. (2003-2014). Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-difference-between-outsourcing-and-offshoring.htm Inventory turnover Inventory turnover is a form of measurement of how frequently a company sells and replenishes its inventory. The Free Dictionary. (2009). Retrieved from http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ Inventory+Turnover Just-in-time inventory (JIT) JIT inventory system maximizes the profit by just keeping enough inventory as needed and making more frequent orders, saving space and the money associated with keeping up with large inventories. Wise Geek. (2013-2014). Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-just-in-time-inventory.htm Vendor managed inventory (VMI) It is the type of inventory model where the manufacturer is responsible for keeping up with the levels of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory. Vendor Managed Inventory. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.vendormanagedinventory.com/definition.php
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
I believe that the following statement the position of all women in the USA had improved by the end of the 1920's is not true because only a small percentage of women's lives changed, these were usually the upper or middle class and those who lived in the cities. I intend to prove my beliefs in the following paragraphs by evaluating the different aspects of their life's, work, home, society and clothing. Work During the First world war a number of women worked for the first time, some of these jobs had previously been done by men. Even though women proved that they could do these jobs just as well as the men, many lost their jobs when the men returned from war. Two million more women were employed in 1930 than in 1920, this was however an increase of only 1 per cent. Women achieved almost a third of all degrees by 1930, but only 4% of the professors were women. Women still tended to work in the least skilled and lowest paid jobs and men were still paid more than women for doing the same job. Women did not get much help from the government or police either. The Supreme Court banned laws that set a minimum wage for women workers. Men were still the managers and had the jobs with the best prospects, there were however new jobs for women but they tended to be so called women's jobs such as librarian's teachers and nurses. Most women workers still had low paying jobs. In the new radio Industry women were the preferred employees because of their small nimble hands but one of the main reasons why employees were willing to employ women was that they could pay women lower wages than men for performing the same job. Home On the whole these large middle classes do their own housework with few of the mechanical aids, among 10,000 farm houses only 32% had any running water at all, only 57% used washing machines and only 47% had a carpet sweeper. Women who live on farms and they form the largest group in the USA did a great deal of work besides their labour of caring for their children, washing the clothes, caring for the home and cooking, thousands of women still laboured in the fields. Men remained the main breadwinners and women cooked cleaned and raised their children, whereas boys continued to play with guns and grew up to head their families, girls played with dolls and looked forward to careers as wives and mothers. Society After the war and during the 1920's much changed, at least for middle and upper class women. Many taboos disappeared, women started to smoke in public: sales of cigarettes doubled during the decade. It became acceptable for women to drive, and take part in strenuous sport. Women also socialised with men more easily. Chaperons were abandoned and the pre war waltz gave way to a more daring dance the Charleston. By the mid 1920's women's fashions had been transformed. Hemlines shot up. It would have been considered scandalous for a man and unmarried women to meet alone, for whatever reason. It was also socially unacceptable for women to smoke in public before the war, it was illegal in New York. Attitudes towards sex and marriage seemed to be changing a survey in 1920 found that only 31% of the college students questioned had not had sex before marriage compared to 74% of the college students questioned in 1900. New laws made it easier for women to divorce their husbands in 1900 only 81 out of every 1000 marriages ended in divorce but by 1928 the number of marriages ending in divorce had risen to 166 out of every 1000. It now became acceptable for women to see the new superstars such as Ã¢â¬Å"Babe RuthÃ¢â¬ at baseball games. There was exciting entertainment at the new cinemas built nationwide where rich and poor, men and women flocked to see Hollywood films featuring stars like Charlie Chaplin and Rudolph Valentino. In the 1920's middle class women had more free time, partly due to the new domestic labour saving products like vacuum cleaners. If they had a car (as many did ) they were no longer so bound to the home. For thousands of American women in rural areas, the 1920's did not bring many changes. They continued to play traditional roles within the family . The most significant sign that the roles of women was changing was when in 1920 women had been given the vote entitling them to more political power, this change affected all women nationwide every women had the right to vote despite her status in society. Clothing Clothes had changed, the tight waisted, ankle length, voluminous dresses of pre war days had been replaced by waistless knee length, lightweight dresses. These gave greater freedom of movement as well as being more daring. Before the war women had been expected to have long hair. After the war short hair became a sign of liberation. Make up became popular and sales boomed, led by advertisements. Flapper was a name given to a liberated urban woman. Few women would have regarded themselves as flappers but the flapper represented an extreme example of the changes that were affecting many women. They were identified by their short skirts, bobbed hair, powdered knees, bright clothes and lots of make up. Flappers were mainly upper and middle class women from the Northern states. After carefully evaluating the evidence available concerning the way women's life's changed in Society, work, clothing and home I believe that it is evident that only a small percentage of women's lives changed. These were usually the upper or middle class because they were the only ones who could afford the new mod cons e. g. vacuum cleaner resulting in them having more free time in which they could go and see the new entertainment. Also nearly all upper and middle class women possessed a car compared to a mere 40% working class families meaning that only the upper and middle class were not bound to the home. The position of all women did not improve in the 1920's because women in rural areas who formed the largest group in the USA did not notice many changes. The only significant change that improved the roles of all women within society was them gaining the vote in 1920, but this led to women losing their unifying cause. A vast majority of women's life's stayed the same.
In The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass An American Slave, Frederick Douglass effectively describes his escapes from slaveholders through his intellectual literacy. In virtue of his experience as an enslaved man, Douglass writes about the abuse he suffers for being African American. He writes his narrative for the general public including slaves, to show the slaveholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ wrongdoings. Douglass portrays the demeaning treatment of slaves to express inhumane conditions, which they face repeatedly. Throughout the novel Douglass is able to persuade his readers that slavery is cruel and an immoral act, through the use of visual imagery, situational irony, and formal diction. Through the use of visual imagery, Douglass is able to persuade the public that the physical scars from slave have dehumanizing effects by describing brutality, and human degradation. On one of DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s first accounts, he describes his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death by stating Ã¢â¬Å"I was not allowed to be present during her illness, at her death, or burialÃ¢â¬ (Page 18). This incident relates to pathos because it reveals DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of interaction with his mother and the isolation he endures in the early stages of his life, which emotionally draws the reader into realizing the psychological afflictions of slavery. As well as his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s passing, Douglass utilizes visual imagery to account for the last days of his frail grandmother: Ã¢â¬Å"If my poor old grandmother now lives, she lives to suffer in utter loneliness; she lives to remember and mourn over the loss of childrenÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Page 56). Douglass exposes how little sympathy slaveholders possess towards slaves. Visual imagery of this incident persuades the reader of slaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s savagery because it is clear that Douglass is kept away from the people whom he loves, and is forced to feel nothing but sorrow. Due to the restrictions from slavery, Douglass copes with his aches by describing clear details of the worst days of his life. Likewise, Douglass presents the remorseless treatment of slaves through the use of situational irony. A representation of this is shown within old Barney and young Barney-father and son. He says Ã¢â¬Å"They were frequently whipped when leastÃ deserving, and escaped whipping when most deserving itÃ¢â¬ (Page 30). Douglass explains that living in a constant state of fear, the boys are never safe from severe punishment regardless of doing everything theyÃ¢â¬â¢re told. Douglass also uses logos to convince the public that slaveholders are not capable of managing others because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have moral sense. Additionally, Douglass illustrates another situational paradox when he fights back against Mr. Covey: Ã¢â¬Å"From this time I was never again what might be called fairly whipped, though I remained a slave four years afterwards. I had several fights, but was never whippedÃ¢â¬ (Page 75). DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s fierce determination for freedom results in respect from his slaveholder, which is unbelievable and contradictory to slavery overall. Because of the situational irony from the events prior, Douglass is able to express how irresponsible slaveholders are to be manipulating slaves. Furthermore, formal diction is most prominent is DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative because it describes most of the details. Despite his restrictions, DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s strong desire for education allows for gains in his knowledge, to which is distinct through his writing skills. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual literacy not only distresses the general public towards slavery, but mesmerizes them to conceive the idea on how he made it out alive. A prime example of formal diction is shown when describing Mr. Austin Gore: Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Hopkins was succeeded by Mr. Austin Gore, a man possessing, in an eminent degree, all those traits of character indispensableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Page 33) He claims that the first-rate overseer, Mr. Gore is superior and honored because of his highly callous acts. Thus, Douglass is able to address a highly educated audience such as the readers of this academic narrative. He then adds, Ã¢â¬Å"Going to live at Baltimore laid the foundation, and opened the gateway, to all my subsequent prosperityÃ¢â¬ (Page 41). In other words, Douglass desperately wishes for freedom, and is able to fulfill his fortune at Baltimore. Formal diction allows Douglass to put his eloquent vocabulary to use. Although Frederick Douglass was an enslaved man, he teaches himself to read and write. He uses his intellectual gains of writing as a way to portray his brutal life, and explains the struggles he goes through to now being AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s role as the most famous African American slave. Throughout the narrative, he uses rhetorical devices to personify the thoughts that go through his mind as a slave. He also uses figurative language to vividly illustrate the hardshipsÃ of being African American with the use of visual imagery, situational irony, and formal diction. These devices also make the tortures of being a slave more understandable and easy to comprehend. His eloquent literacy continues to be relevant in both history and the modern world today.
The crowd waited in silence as minutes had passed. Then suddenly the velvet red curtains began to part. Rushing to opposite sides of the stage revealing a girl. The spotlight shining bright directly on her, you could see the fear in her glossy hazel eyes as she took a quick glimpse into the crowd. She slowly closed her eyes and gently laid her head on her shoulder rest of her beautiful classical 4/4 violin. We watched as she placed her fingers correctly and there it was, the first note. A beautiful A flat. So petite and perfect you knew her performance was going to be astonishing.A violin is a beautiful instrument to look at. That beauty, which comes from the instrument's curved and often shiny body, is what helps make the sound you hear. The body of a violin is hollow. The strings are above the body, suspended by a bridge. The bridge is a small, maple piece of wood. This bridge is secured on the instrument because of the tension of the strings. When the violin is played, the vibrati on of the strings is transferred from the bridge to the body. The vibration is amplified in the body of the violin, and this is the sound you hear.The sound of a well played violin is the sound of emotions, from the length of sadness to the shortness of expectations. Sometimes, it's low pitch, whispering like the wind and warm like a blanket and then it gets higher and higher until the pitch is so high, it's borderline painful, but just before you reach the painÃ¢â¬ ¦ it stops and get silencedÃ¢â¬ ¦ and then whispers again. The violin is the highest pitch instrument in the orchestra like the higher part of a piano. Sometimes the violin can sound scratchy when you mess up but other times it sounds like harmony and peace when you succeed.Sounds like the high pitch of the bird singing outside your window that wakes you up in the morning. Majestic like water, drops of water creating ripples of sound. Waves that flow into your ears and give you those goosebumps that make the little hai rs on your arms stand up. The beautiful sound that makes your ears ask for more and more of its gorgeousness . That when they stop playing you feel that little crack in your heart from the loss of the astonishing sound you crave for more of. She pulled back on her bow creating her last note. Her last note was a decrescendo on the note E.She drew back her bow slowly not quite letting the beautiful sound end just yet, It slowly faded away into the distance, my ears lingered to hear the note that was disappearing into the darkness. My eyes were closed , secretly begging to hear more but all i heard was silence. I opened my eyes and saw she had picked up her bow. The audience was so astonished they sat in silence. That pause felt like eternity but then i stood to my feet and began to applaud her, as everybody else in the crowd followed me and a tear fell off my cheek, Knowing that was my student on that stage.
In our current economy, the need for a college education becomes increasingly valuable despite the high cost of tuition and loans. The demand for skilled, college-educated laborers is high. A college education can also determine your future income potential and in many cases, it is the only way a person can climb up the socioeconomic ladder. There are two theories that suggests why the need for a college education has been growing Ã¢â¬â increased international competition and skill-biased technology. The first theory focuses on the globalization of the U. S. economy. The argument is that increased competition from low skilled labor abroad has decreased the wages of low-skilled workers at home. At first, this theory seems to make sense but the statistics do not make sense. The reason is that only a small portion of the US economy is actually subject to competition from abroad. Also, job competition is growing in both the most and the least trade-affected industries at about the same rate. (Irons, 1998) The second theory for the increase in need for a college education has been called Ã¢â¬Å"skill-biased technological changeÃ¢â¬ . The idea is current technology favors the higher skilled, higher educated workers over lower skilled workers. An example would be the increase use of computer technology has helped in the productivity and wages of the computer users and programmers. But, this increase does not help increase stagnated wages of the Ã¢â¬Å"lesserÃ¢â¬ educated worker who does not know this new technology. The only problem with this theory is that technological growth is a difficult to measure. There are two many hard to define variables to statistically measure this kind of change. (Irons, 1998) Even if these theories were to be debunked, the idea that a college education is more valuable that a high school education is correct. Statistically, a person with a college education generates a great deal more income in a lifetime than a high school graduate. Likewise, a high school graduate definitely has a higher income than a high-school dropout. The following chart shows a huge numeric difference in economic outcomes as a result of the educational status of the worker. The increase in income between the groups is a direct result of the educational degree attained. No High School 10,236 20,146 68,275 (Diaz-Geminiz, Quadrini, and Rios-Rull (1997) In Dimensions of Inequality, Diaz-Geminiz, Quadrini, and Rios-Rull theorizes the financial inequality in the U. S. according to the labor earnings, income, and wealth among U. S. households. Labor earnings are the amount of salary taken home as a result from working. Total income includes labor earning plus any additional income, such as stocks or savings accounts, and even income from government transfers, like Social Security and Welfare. And lastly, wealth represents the total stock of past savings. According to this theory of financial inequality, the top end of the distribution has seen a growth in their income while those at the lower end have seen their income stagnate. The financial distribution is highly skewed in the U. S. with the top 1% of households owning 30% of the American pie. This is 875 times more wealth that the bottom 40% of the distribution. Increasingly, the only way to obtain a decent piece of the economic pie is by earning a college degree. The higher your college degree, i. e. masters or Ph. D. , the higher your potential income earnings. Rather, education is the most important way in which people can make it into the upper end of the income distribution. Besides the differences in incomes among the college educated and non-college educated, there are also differences in employment opportunities among college educated, high school educated, and high school dropouts. The answer is yes. Your education also holds the key to what kinds of jobs or career you can or cannot obtain. According to the National Center For Education Statistics, Ã¢â¬Å"post-secondary degree attainment is associated with better access to employment and higher earnings. In 1995, on average, male bachelorÃ¢â¬ s degree recipients aged 25-34 earned 52 percent more, and female bachelorÃ¢â¬ s degree recipients 91 percent more, than their counterparts with a high school diploma. Ã¢â¬ On average, a limited education impedes a personÃ¢â¬ s employment opportunities. Rather, how much education one can obtain will affect how broad their job opportunity outlook will be. According to Youth Indicators, Ã¢â¬Å"Between 1965 and 1992, the percentage of non-college bound high school graduates entering the labor force changed little. The apparent dip in 1970 was caused by the entry of young men into the military rather than the civilian labor force. In contrast, the proportion of college students who were also in the labor force rose from 28% in 1965 to 49% in 1992. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, there are more job opportunities among the college educated than high school educated. Statistically, the value of a college education can be invaluable for oneÃ¢â¬ s economic future. With this realization, post-secondary enrollments have increased continuously over the years. Ã¢â¬Å"The percentage of high school graduates who enrolled in 2- or 4- year colleges and universities in the October following graduation increased from 49% to 62% between 1972 and 1995. During this same period, the percentage of 25- to 29- year old high school graduates who had completed 4 or more years of college rose from 24% to 28%. Ã¢â¬ (National Center for Education Statistics) A college education also has a value beyond monetary terms. A college education can open the doors of opportunities for anyone willing to take advantage of that opportunity. High school cannot offer the same opportunity. A university has far superior resources for its students than high school. A person can learn a lot about life by simply being a college student. Most importantly, beyond attaining a degree, is the knowledge one can earn through attending college. The process of learning is a priceless tool that can only be enhanced by the college experience.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Portfolio - Essay Example I am, however, still having difficulties in more difficult English words, those that are not usually used in the every day life or in the regular textbook. I still find myself searching for the meaning of these words. Also, IÃ¢â¬â¢m still having problems in writing English paragraphs because I tend to write the same words in the different sentences within the same paragraph. This is because I still need to further expand my knowledge of English words and their synonyms. However, I know that I can still add to my knowledge in the English vocabulary by exposing myself more to this language through reading English books, papers and articles and through interacting with other people who are native English speakers and writers. Before taking this class, the English grammar was the most difficult area for me. As I am not used to writing or speaking English sentences, my sentence structure in English was not really that good. The grammar pre-test that we took at the start of this class really showed that grammar is a big weakness for me. But after taking this class, I can say that my English grammar has significantly improved. The lessons on verb tenses and the subject Ã¢â¬â verb agreement could be simple lessons for those who are good in writing in English but for me, these two lessons were challenging ones because they are at the core of what I needed to correct in my grammar. Although these lessons were hard for me, they have helped me improve my grammar in this aspect. Reading the two textbooks, the reading strategies and the improving study skills have also exposed me to proper English grammar. Of course, as I am still developing my English skills, I still find it hard to write English sentences prop erly. Sometimes, it is easier to go back to my old English grammar rather than to have to think things through to ensure that the subject and the verb agree all the time, that I am using the proper verb tense and that
Queer Identities - Essay Example Television too is now less reluctant to broadcast these individuals, usually without much negative interest or comment from the press or the public (Serrano, 2009). Additionally, there have been recent Ã¢â¬ËandrogynousÃ¢â¬â¢ fashion trends which make it more difficult for clothing to fall into binary gender norms. It is now extremely commonplace to see women wearing typically masculine fashions (whether this be in hair or in clothing), and this presents a huge change in gender norms (). In a way, the acceptance of these media of the transgender and queer communities makes a very strong political statement, although it may not be immediately obvious. It also suggests that patterns developed in a heteronormative society (that is, acquired culturally) can be broken and changed to represent the individuals needs and desires, through the spread of Ã¢â¬Ënon-traditional images and ideas about how people can appear and actÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gauntlett, 2008,
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Sarbanes Oxley and its Influence on the Finance and Information Technology - Coursework Example One reason for its significance is its scope along with the material shift it signifies in the balance of federal and state regulation of corporations. Historically, substantive regulation of corporate procedure and governance has been primarily the province of state regulation, while the federal securities laws have regulated disclosure. (Klimko, May 2004) The second reason is that SOX seeks to improve investor confidence by tightening government regulation of the accounting, reporting, and corporate governance practices of public companies. Many of the Act's provisions require the SEC to adopt implementing rules, and many rules have been adopted since the Act became law. (Klimko, May 2004) In this respect, positive changes are recorded in corporate auditing controls and compliance procedures. The Act also established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board to regulate accounting firms who perform audits on the financial statements of publicly held companies. The board's mission is clear: to tighten accounting standards and restore confidence in the profession. Subject to direct SEC supervision, this body also is responsible for disciplinary action--everything from investigation to significant fines--against any company found in noncompliance with the Act. (Longnecker, 2004)As is generally the case with governmental intervention in the affairs of business, Sarbanes-Oxley has triggered many unintended side effects. Most experts agree that it has changed several facets of business, including the concept of the executive seat; the way honest, hard-working CEOs interpret their roles; and the methods scandal-weary boards use to operate and make decisions moving forward. (Longnecker, 2004) Further, the uncertainty surrounding the legislation's impact on auditing, financial reporting, executive loans, etc. has had a chilling effect on operations in boardrooms across the U.S. Leading decision makers at companies are, in many cases, so intently focused on legislative issues that they have been distracted from fully focusing efforts on their business' primary operations and creating shareholder value. Additionally, it is not just the CEO and CFO who are being asked to certify financial records and take on additional risks and responsibilities. Although not specifically mandated by Sarbanes-Oxley, many companies are r equiring certifications of financial results by their division presidents, department heads, and other senior management in an effort to comply with corporate governance and controls. As the process continues to filter down through the ranks, simply conforming with these laws could end up costing shareholders more than they ever thought possible. In essence, the ripple effect of Sarbanes-Oxley very easily could take businesses from a place of under regulation to one of overregulation, which can be just as dangerous for a variety of reasons.
History of music - Essay Example Assuredly, music has evolved with time and we can now enjoy live concerts, audio music, videos, and instrumentals. It is arguably true that most people think and identify with the idea that only the elite and educated audience enjoys classical music. This follows an observation that only the snobs, intellectuals, racists, and educated people attend classical music concerts. Indeed, this has been a consistent tread and the mindset to believe in this argument has been there for decades. However, this is not necessarily true. In fact, there has been a common belief that the young generation, the less educated, and the less wealthy do not want to attend classical concerts because either they cannot afford entrance fee or they suffer inferiority complex because of the apparent intellectual superiority that entails a classical music concert. However, I can establish that this is not necessarily true as the same class of people easily afford pop and football tickets which are reasonably expensive that classical concert tickets. Hence, I derive that the only reason why the less educated or the public fails to attend classical music concerts is that they lack exposure to this genre of music. Otherwise, with significant exposure, everybody enjoys classical music. Therefore, I suggest that we introduce and encourage children to enjoy and recognize the beauty in classical music while still at school. With this, we will be able to eliminate the apparent inability to attend classical music concerts.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Neymar Case (F.C. Barcelona) - Coursework Example An effective response to crises includes leadership involvement, application of human resources initiatives, and restructuring the organizational structure. To elaborate on this effective response and mitigation process, this text will be developed adhering to the defined outline of the need to effective response, and will apply the recent FC Barcelona crisis which went viral with the globe pointing fingers at the club accusing it of fraud in signing Neymar. The text will address the issue and suggest on what was the best way to deal with the matter in terms of handling the arising issues and restoring trust and calm to all involved stakeholders. Neymar, a promising Brazilian soccer star has been a treasure many clubs have been aiming at netting and when FC Barcelona succeeded in signing him, it was expected to be the start of big things. However, it was unknown that the move was indeed suicidal for the club after claims of fraud during the signing of the star emerged. As Minder (2014, n.p.) reveals, the issue was that the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s management had misappropriated funds during the process, stating that 57 Million Euros were spent on the signing whereas the actual sum known to have been spent was 86 Million Euros. To make matters worse, it is said that about 40 million of the said amount was paid to an organization affiliated to NeymarÃ¢â¬â¢s father, raising eyebrows as to the transparency of the entire process. Events following the dark turn of events were the Spanish court giving a green light for the case to proceed against the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s tax defrauding accusations, and the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s then manager, Sandro Rosell resigning in early 2014. What went wrong and which are best measures to prevent recurrence and restore FC BarcelonaÃ¢â¬â¢s flawed glory? In a business context, the management of FC Barcelona had failed in its mandates thus contributing to the said outcome. The
The Black Plague - Research Paper Example It is transmitted to humans from the wild rodents by fleas that form the intermediate carrier. However in the latter part of the twentieth century, there have been some speculations as to whether this Black Death was caused by only bubonic plague, or were there some other explanations (as for example, some researchers claim that it may have been a viral hemorrhagic fever that killed so many) for this deadly and sudden pandemic, that had once threatened to wipe out the entire European population. However, most historians and scientists are of the view that, it was indeed the bubonic plague along with its variations, which caused Black Death. The effect of this disaster was so great that it took almost 150 years for the affected countries to recover and it created such a great upheaval that it led to a certain changes in the socio-political, religious and economic picture of Europe. This black plague kept on rearing its ugly head at different times, killing in large numbers each time it appeared in Europe. Finally it was only in the nineteenth century that this epidemic disappeared completely, from the European soil. This article will examine the infamous calamitous episode, known in history as the Black Death, and will explore the probable causes that led to it, and will study the various effects that this devastating pandemic had on the entire socio-political fabric of Europe during the middle ages. History of plague: Even before it left its indelible mark as the Black Death, bubonic plague was known to human civilization. As early as in the sixth and seventh century (541-544 A.D.), there were confirmed reports of this disease which is known as the Justinian plague, as it had occurred during the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian (527- 565A.D.). Even then, its effects were quite devastating, and was said to have killed around 300,000 people in Constantinople itself, with some reports even claiming that there were 5000-10000 deaths in the
Friday, July 26, 2019
Control in Training - Essay Example It is possible to distinguish three types of control: (1) routine control (from lecture to lecture), (2) monitoring (during the course) and (3) control of the skills acquired at the end of the course. It is possible to control the level of skills and personal development, compare skills of employees with certain standards or skills development of other employees (Truelove, 1995). During the training course, it is essential to provide continuing direct attention to learning process and skills of the trainees. In the sense that the supervisor will be attempting to sustain the performance of these employees, the intent will be task-related. However, the actions will be largely employee-oriented in nature and manner; the supervisor will be encouraging, reinforcing, patient, willing to listen. At this stage, the task of the manager is to support trainees and correct their actions if necessary. The instilling of standards and confidence (accompanying the skill development) during training is important for both the organization and employees. The role of the trainers is to develop certain skills and knowledge according to standards and new requirements. Employees with high self-esteem and high need for achievement, for example, appear to need feedback that gives information related to competency and control over the task.
Trillion Dollar Bet - Essay Example Quantitative finance is still a huge part of institutional investing, but despite that fact there are still those traders who feel that it is used too much. This in the end creates a certain amount of hostility between the "rocket scientists" or "quants" and the "intuitive" traders who depend only minimally on mathematics. What is interesting, and also unfortunate about this tension, is that no one has really conducted a study that would shed light on which approach is more optimal in terms of making money for either individual investors or financial institutions. Such a study would be fascinating, and would give much needed and incredibly valuable information on trading strategies. The viewer is given the opportunity to learn of the attempts that have been made to find a mathematical formula for risk, which after some decades of research has finally been achieved by Myron Scholes and Fisher Black, with important contributions as well from Robert Merton. The 'Black-Scholes equation' is now ubiquitous in financial engineering, and as the program mentions, is greatly used in trading pits to estimate the price of an option. This part of the program is actually very interesting, for it discusses the historical origins of quantitative finance, in looking at the thesis of Louis Bechalier. ... For example, the factors which lead LTCM to go into liquidation are not immediately known. The viewer is also led to believe that the LTCM organization, through its vast positioning, aggravated the financial turmoil at that time. With the unknown reasoning behind the ultimate liquidation, any such conclusions or statements first should go through serious research before any final decision is made. No evidence for this is given in the program, and also many of the guests reflect a certain bias against quantitative finance. Bias on any topic can lead to an unfortunate sense of crucial facts being potentially ignored in favor of siding with a popular idea(s). For starters, one of the guests on the program, Stan Jonas of FINAT Brothers, makes reference to a collection of people who a consumer would want to "manage their money." In the end, who are these people and what justifies imputing to them this rare ability Also what is their track record in investment Do they consistently make money, and is this consistency verifiable to an external observer It is these questions which are truly important, and is imperative to ask in order to have a fully well rounded understanding of the subject matter that is being assessed. Sadly, Jonas does not give any names or examples unfortunately, and his statements do reflect to an already mentioned degree of bias against the practice of mathemati cal modeling in finance. Such a bias in and of itself is not necessarily bad, but a reader who is really interested in studying the difference in efficacious between trading strategies, i.e. maybe between those that exploit complex mathematics and those that do not, will not gain anything from Jonas' statements. Such
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Are we getting overly dependant on technology - Essay Example For this reason, people have become lazy to do go their work thus becoming obese. For an instant, a CEO who does not want to attend a meeting in the office, one can just conduct the meeting in their house by use of a webcam. According to Shenk (1997), people have been so dependent on technology such that they cannot solve a simple calculation without the help of a calculator. The todayÃ¢â¬â¢s children cannot write in good handwriting because they are used to just using a computer to write whatever they need. They do not have time even to learn to write cursive. Computer and internet are not as perfect as people may think. There are some things these technological devices and media cannot teach (Shenk 1997). If the whole world were to lose power, some people would not be able to do some things. The world would stand still as individuals would have been used to technology doing their everyday activities. Because of the continuous advancement of technology, the ultimate fear is that people will completely rely on technology to run their lives. However, people need to resist this temptation and try to learn some things
Term Paper, Project Management - Assignment Example 2. Usage - Mostly done as a preliminary method of finding out information with regards to the interaction between the environmental stressors or risk agents and the target population, communities, or sites (US EPA, 2012a). 3. How it is conducted - The EPA uses a four-step method which consists of the following: data collection and evaluation; exposure assessment; toxicity assessment; and risk characterization (US EPA, 2012a). Data collection and evaluation aims to gather as much information from the site as possible, such as collecting samples and identifying the presence of stressors such as chemicals in the surroundings. After sufficient data has been gathered and analyzed, exposure and toxicity assessments are done next. Exposure assessment is done in order to analyze the contaminants released, to identify the populations exposed and how these stressors reached them, as well as estimating both the concentrations and intakes using various pathways by which the stressors were able t o reach the studied target areas or populations. The toxicity assessment deals with further quantitative and qualitative studies on the stressors such as performing tests that determine the toxicity levels of contaminants. Lastly, risk characterizations list the sum total possible effects of these contaminants to both the environment and the people such as the potentiality to cause chronic or acute diseases. Also, the probabilities and uncertainties of how these contaminants can reach people are summarized in order to aid future risk assessments to be done in later areas (US EPA, 2012a). 4. Comparison to other kinds of assessments Ã¢â¬â Baseline risk assessment is the most basic but generalized method of analyzing the current condition of target locations and populations. While it shares many characteristics such as the use of scientific methods in the conduct of other kinds of assessments, it is also the foundation for other kinds of analyses to be conducted in the future, espec ially with the larger areas of study and necessary information. There is also a greater need to incorporate as much information from the areas or sites as possible since these are the levels by which future prediction models will be based on, and will be constantly relied on in succeeding area or population analyses. Thus, in order to create accurate models and risk assessments for each site, the baseline risk assessment must be carefully and thoroughly conducted to prevent future miscalculations and assure that there is appropriate risk-management in these areas (US EPA, 2012a). Comparative Risk Assessment 1. Definition Ã¢â¬â It is a kind of assessment method wherein the ranking of various effects in importance or relevance are established into a scale which, while not exactly designed to work on a single measuring unit or scale, is quite functional in approximating the effects or consequences of such stressors based on location and population (US EPA, 2006). 2. Usage - The EPA use comparative risk assessments in a way that various risks or important points are referred to and then compared to the approximated scale so as to assist risk assessors in weighing the appropriate measures in accordance to the presence or identity of the risks involved (US EPA, 2006). Such
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Japanese Spirit, Western Thinks - Essay Example According to the essay "Japanese Spirit, Western Thinks" findings, Japan has been an expert in taking an idea and transforming it into something sensational. In manufacturing, for example, Japanese practice has greatly advanced by creating a hybrid based on the material and technologies from the West, while maintaining the traditional processes that have proven their worth for centuries. Since practically the most difficult part of ensuring an ideologyÃ¢â¬â¢s success is to come up with the ideology in the first place, Japan was able to bypass this step and leaped forward to the modification and implementation part, thus keeping their efforts to a minimum while producing the most optimal results at the same time. Furthermore, their selective adaptation allowed Japan to just pick out the aspects of Western culture and ideologies that would apply to their own local flavor. Thus, the result was most often better by leaps and bounds compared to the original. Thus, it may be quite unfair for the author to claim that Ã¢â¬Å"Japan's leaders continue to use these cultural excuses, as they have for 150 years, to mask their own efforts to cling to power and prestige. The ugly, undemocratic and illiberal aspects of Japanese traditionalism continue to lurk behind its admirable elements.Ã¢â¬ In fact, as the author himself pointed out almost bitterly, Japan has applied this methodology many years before the coming of the Westerners. As an illustration, the religion and language has remained quite intact despite the surge of Western ideologies towards their direction.
Drugs And Society - Assignment Example The paper gives an in-depth analysis of the areas stated above. Drug abuse is a complex disorder that is characterized by a compulsive need for drugs and alcohol even if it has negative effects. Antecedents can be defined as the factors that encourage an individual to engage in drug abuse. Some individuals use drugs to escape emotional stress or physical pain (NIDA, 2010). Risk of addiction is affected by many aspects including age or stage of development, sociological and biological factors. These factors increase an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability to drug abuse. The biological factors are dictated upon by the genetic make up of an individual together with the environmental influences. NIDA (2010) stipulates that these factors account for fifty percent of vulnerability among individuals. Additional factors that fall under this category include ethnicity and gender as they may influence the risk for drug use and addiction. The environment has an impact on an individual since it affects the quality of life and the socioeconomic status (NIDA, 2010). Factors including peer pressure, stress, physical and social abuse and parental involvement affect a persons way of life making them more vulnerable to drug abuse. The environmental and genetic factors interact with developmental stages in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life to affect the level of vulnerability. It is observed that if an individual starts using drugs at an early age, they are likely to advance to higher levels of addiction. Drug abuse in the adolescent years is quite dangerous since important development of the brain takes place at this stage. This affects their self control, decision making and judgment. Drug abuse affects society in multiple ways, the health and social costs associated with illicit use are staggering. The nation spends approximately $69.9 billion annually on health complications caused by
Arthus Evans' contribution - Essay Example This Minoan civilization became his contribution to stratigraphy-driven archaeology. The Crete excavations that had resulted in the discovery of the Minoan civilization had another essential contribution in store. Based on the Minoan civilization, Arthur Evans developed a relative dating scheme which he named Minoan chronology (MacGillivray 163). Arthur Evans had predominantly managed excavations at Knossos. For this reason, the Minoan chronology is purely attributed to him. This dating scheme would later be applied in Greek and the Cyclades Islands, thereby becoming a plan for dating prehistoric and early historic Aegean events (MacGillivray 174). Arthur Evans was the world-renowned British archaeologist who excavated the palace of Knossos on the Greek island of Crete and developed the theory of Minoan civilization (Roberts 156). He was born on July 8, 1851 and passed away on July 11, 1941. Throughout his academic career, Evans contributed a great number of precious works which include Cretan Pictographs and Pre-Phoenician Script (1895), The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult (1901), and The Palace of Minos (1921-1936) (Karetsou 364). These works have produced significant influence on the development of archaeology particularly in the field of European and Mediterranean Sea area history (Karetsou 381). Panagiotaki (257) contends that Evans also contributed largely to the study of ancient language by defining Cretan scripts Linear A and Linear B. The findings of Evans laid a solid groundwork for later research and provided guidance for the further work on these areas. Evans was drawn to the field of ancient history due to both individual and social reasons. Evans was born in a highly educated and intellectual family. His grandfather was the Headmaster of Market Bosworth Grammar School and received a Master Degree in history. Arthur EvansÃ¢â¬â¢ father, John Evans, was capable of reading Latin which led him to large amounts of authoritative academic works
Success of the Communist Movement of the 1960's in Cuba and Not Bolivia - Research Paper Example Research demonstrates that Cuba was the third most developed country in the continent of America. Some aspects of development recorded in Cuba in 1950s surpassed European countries, such as Belgium, Spain, and Portugal. Cuba was not among the nations, which suffered from severe economic problems and reported lowest living standards of the citizens (Dolgoff). In contrast, Cuba was among the American countries that had the highest living standards before the revolution took off. Although Cuba was not a well developed nation economically and there was poverty in the country, Cuba did not face hunger as well as economic crises in the years prior to the revolution. Prior to the 1959, Cuba was reported to be relatively developed country. It was compared on economic standards of development to capitalist countries, such as Costa Rica besides Taiwan (Dolgoff). According to Eckistein (1982), at the time of revolution, Bolivia reported one of the poorest and least developed economies on the co ntinent. The GNP per capita of the country was the second lowest in South American region. The country was ruled by a small kin and land-based oligarchy. The majority of the citizens in Bolivia operated as tenant farmers as well as sharecroppers. In contrast, the Cuban economy was much developed and superior to the Bolivian economy. Cuba was one of the countries with a developed agricultural economy. Nonetheless, the heavily capitalized economy of the country was significantly dominated by foreign companies. Prior to the Cuban revolution, the agricultural economy of Cuba is reported to have been the most integrated economy in the global economy. The agricultural economy in Cuba increasingly used wage labor in the country. According to the Latin American... The Cuban revolution staged in 1959 by Fidel Castro was meant to liberate peasants and low class citizens from low standards of living and improve the economy of the country. The communist structures together with the overwhelming support of peasants from rural and urban regions ensured that the revolution was a success. Seven years later, Guevara Che, who actively participated in the Cuban revolution, set out to Bolivia to stage a revolt in the country that had similar economic problems to CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s and enjoyed massive support of communism. However, 11 months later, he was captured, and killed and the revolution did not succeed as planned. There is a general misconception that poverty leads to communist uprisings and that accumulation of wealth do not contribute toward communism. This notion is misleading as demonstrated by the revolutions in Cuba and Bolivia in 1960s. Poverty does not lead to communism neither does wealth accumulation result in non-communism. Empirical data from various research materials will be reviewed to present the economic statistics and arguments indicating that before the Cuban revolution took place, Bolivia was more underdeveloped economically, yet communism did not thrive in the country as it did in Cuba, which was more developed. Subsequently, after the revolutions of which Cuba increasingly practiced communism but struggled with economic problems whereas Bolivia, which deviated toward non-communism progressively developed economically than Cuba. The political spheres, structure and organization of the communist parties in various countries, and the support of anticommunist nations contributed to the success or failure of the revolutions.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Critical Analysis - Essay Example He found people use differing social tactics to persuade their partners and that certain tactics tend to be more or less effective based on the social context. To what extent is the accuracy of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to assess their partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset correlated with how well they influence by their partner? To what extent is the accuracy of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to assess their partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset correlated with how much they are influenced by their partner? In Grounding Communication: Synchrony, GÃ ¼n R. Semin discusses how to understand social behavior explain as the sum of many processes (Kruglanski, A.W. and Higgins, E.T. (Eds.), 2007). Human behavior is adaptive to contextual variations; thus interpersonal behavior processes may be seen as the whole of communication, social cognition, and language. In other words, social behavior is clearly interactive based on flows of information internally within the individual, interpersonal between individuals, and socially between interpersonal interactions. Does this mean we are only as socially adept as the particular language will allow us to be? How might we investigate the extent a given language allows for social interaction? Regan (2008) contended the mating process is the result of combinations of evaluations individuals make of one another. Men and women are at the behest of both modern and ancient forces that shape the way mating occurs in humans. Some of the evaluations are instinctually executed whereas others are more cognitively-based on current social trends. In either case, the selection process for any individual is based on evaluations of the mating candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s temperament, social status, interpersonality, and physical attractiveness. Mating decisions are also based on so called deal killers. For example, a man may possess all of the desirable attributes in sufficient degree to a woman, but the fact he may be HIV positive automatically excludes him from her choices. What
Free Speech on the Internet - Essay Example These varying ideas and opinions provide the uninformed with a wide range of possibilities and sufficient grounds to make their own judgement. Hence freedom of speech, in this context, must remain untied with restrictions and laws. The criticism against freedom of speech is the fact that people may use this right in order to defame other people, develop controversies, provide an easy platform to make sex talks and the like common and negatively change peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments. The criticisers believe that restrictions must be imposed in order to protect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy and reputation from the abusers of this freedom. The justification to their criticism is the increasing debates over political, social and religious issues. The increasing conflicts and worsening law and order situation provide them with the chance to stand against such freedom. In my opinion, all these arguments are, to a great extent, baseless. Milton describes in Areopagitica two kinds of people: the prudent ones and others who are imprudent. Prudent class of people are able to distinguish between good and bad, reasonable and unreasonable; imprudent, on the other hand, are unaffected by any judgements. In other words, we may say that prudent class has the power to analyze, asses and judge every event, claim or argument; whereas, imprudent do not have their own opinion and they lack the power of expressing and judging. Hence, imprudent remain unaffected by the opinions and expressions of others and prudent accept the claims only if they have any instance of truth in them. Moreover, it is also a noticeable fact, that any restrictions on freedom of speech may keep people from exposing the truth which is against society, political system or well-known personalities. In conclusion, we may say that freedom of speech is a right of people and must not be violated by unnecessary laws and regulations either in real life or on internet. Freedom
Monday, July 22, 2019
Roman Construction Essay The most magnificent structures and works of art can probably be found in Rome. Compared to other civilizations, the Roman constructions crossed the boundaries of engineering in creating buildings, bridges and other structures out of mortars, bricks and woods. From public infrastructures to private houses, Romans were able to create a whole new ground for strong structures and as a result most of the structures that were built centuries ago can still be found to date. Although Roman contsructions were often linked to those of the Greeks, the indebtedness of Romans to contribute more in generating materials as well as techniques created a whole new different perspective in order for them to perfect and affect space-making and their architectural thinking for the purpose of longevity. It was said that most of solutions created by the Romans for constructions and discoveries ofÃ new techniques were greatly affected by the elements in the society such as wealth and high population densities. The innovative success of the Romans in the field of construction imposed the structures for the use of the public. The development in this field engined the growth of certain political propagandas which campaigned for the creation of building in pursuit of gaining fame from it and utilize such creations for public functions (Crystal, 2008). An example of one of the greatest structure created by the Romans in the Pantheon, a temple built for honoring gods. The Pantheon stands in the center of the city of Rome. Originally, it was Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa built the structure in the 27th B.C. From an ordinary rectangular shaped classical temple supported by colonnade on all sides, it was then rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian between AD 118 and 128 creating a central space called Ã¢â¬Å"rotundaÃ¢â¬ . Further reconstructions were done by succeding Roman emperors. The rotunda was then rebuilt by Emperors Septimius Lucius, Septimius Severus and Caracalla making it circular shaped during the third century which then formed the main parts of the Pantheon. Agrippas original portico remained untouched and across the porch of the portico stands sixteen Corinthian columns. The dome of the Pantheon was the largest ever built. The brick archs inside the dome which stand to provide external support are not visible, but rather only seen in t he lowest part of the dome (Ã¢â¬Å"The PantheonÃ¢â¬ ). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The method used to construct the Pantheon remained undetermined but according to records materials such as bricks, a stone formed from volcanic dust called Ã¢â¬Å"tufaÃ¢â¬ as well as basalt and pumice were used to build the structureÃ with high quality. Pantheon is also known for its lavish interior and excellent lighting. The only souce of lighting from the builcing comes from the sun which passes from the top centre of the dome. This particular design in the Pantheon is considered as very revolutionary because it gave more emphasis on the interior design rather than the exterior part of the building. The grandiosity of Pantheon is evident through the colored marbles that is lined in the interiors, the rectangular shaped indentations cut out from the ceiling, the embellishment of bronze rosettes and moldings which later disappeared as well as a frieze of stucco decorations. The walls of the interiors are marked by seven deep recesse s which is screened by pairs of columns (Ã¢â¬Å"The PantheonÃ¢â¬ ). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another Roman construction that has survived the scourge of time is the Roman Coloseum. This historical arena stands between the Esquiline and Calian Hills in Rome, Italy. Also known as the Flavian Ampitheater, this served as an area for entertainment among the Romans; wild beast hunts and gladiatorial combats are among the many spectacles shown in the ampitheater. The colosseum can accommodate around 50,000 spectators and holds about 80 entrances, 4 of which are made for the emperor. The external area of the ampitheater is built out of travertines while the tufa bricks infill the interiors. Marble blocks served as the main pedestal which are held by metal pins. Unfortunately the pins were then carried out by thieves and was later on replaced with mortars. The seats for the audience are classified according to social class and gender. Better seats are gained by those members of the community who are in the higher social status. Wooden benches on the fourth tier are made for the poor.Ã In order to protect the crowd from the rainy or hot weather a wide colored awning known as Ã¢â¬Å"velariumÃ¢â¬ is stretched overhead. For nearly four centuries, gladiatorial combats and other spectacles are held in the colosseum (Ã¢â¬Å"Roman ColosseumÃ¢â¬ ). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The aqueducts or the Roman waterway system held brought great changes in the field of engineering. It is considered to be the most advanced water system during the ancient times. Over the span of 500 years, 11 aqueducts were created that supplied the whole city of Rome. Some of the known aqueducts in Rome that maintained the flow of water during the ancient times are Aqua Appia, Aqua Novus and the Aqua Alexandrina. a combination of stones, bricks and pozzuolana, a speacial volcanic cement. The aqueducts certainly leave a distinct impression because despite the visible large arch structures, an impressive waterway system functions below the ground. It carried flowing water in areas like the valleys. The entire sytem relies mainly on slopes and gravity for the continuous flow of water to be maintained.Ã Once the water hits Rome, large reservoirs called Ã¢â¬Å"castellaÃ¢â¬ , which is maintained on the highest ground held the water supply of the whole city, which could be tapped by public fountains, baths and private villas from the network provided which sometimes requires a fee (Ã¢â¬Å"Roman AqueductsÃ¢â¬ ). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã What the Romans constructed then had greatly affected various aspects in the society and the innovations they have created set forth an example of maximizing the available resources and still be able to produce quality works that will last for generations. In general, different Roman constructions were able to supply further solutions to problems and became a standard for great infrastructure we have today. References Crystal, E. (2008). Ancient Roman Architecture. Crystal Links. Retrieved June 13, 2008 from http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html The Pantheon. Wise Dude.Ã (n.d) Retrieved June 13, 2008 fromÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.wisedude.com/history pantheon.htm Roman Colosseums. UNRV History. (n.d) Retrieved June 13, 2008 from http://www.unrv.com/culture/colosseum.php Roman Aqueducts. UNRV History. (n.d) Retrieved June 13, 2008 from http://www.unrv.com/culture/roman-aqueducts.php
Historical events Essay Depending on the political views of a reporter, columnist, author, or news agency, the facts can be reported in a variety of different ways. This can often cause controversy regarding the truth, as different sources report differing things as being true. This is also true when speaking of historical events, as different people will speak differently of different events, depending on their political affiliation and beliefs. By slating the information in a particular way, the reporter can further his or her own political agenda, by making his or her beliefs seem like the right ones. If a person is a conservative politically, it would not make much sense for him or her to report the news in a manner that would support liberalism and vice versa. This is apparent in the way that Fox News and CNN report the news on a daily bases. There are clearly some political biases that distort the fact, in order to best serve the beliefs held by the people at these agencies. In a historical sense, it would not make much sense for a government to re-tell history in a manner that makes it seem tyrannical or even blood thirsty, so based on these political goals, the government can simply choose to leave certain aspects of history out. This makes it possible for them to manipulate public opinion in the manner that best compliments their objectives. An example of how the manner in which a news story is reported can change the entire event is perceived is a recent story that was picked up by both Fox News and CNN. The story was about a tour that President George W. Bush and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld embarked on in order to increase support for the war in Iraq. While the exact same speech was covered by both news agencies, the information that was passed on to the public was different in each case. Fox News focused on the positives that had been accomplished in Iraq. It started by giving numbers on how many Iraqi soldiers had been trained to fight insurgents in the region. Rumsfeld was quoted as saying that Ã¢â¬Å"95 battalions, 50,000 of the 212,000 Iraqi force, are trained, equipped and in the fight against insurgentsÃ¢â¬ (Baier). Fox also made a point of mentioning how Iraqi forces were taking an increased role in the stabilization of Iraq and they were well on their way to being able to defend their own country. Fox continued on by including RumsfeldÃ¢â¬â¢s quote that withdrawing troops from Iraq would be counter productive to their anti-terror movement and would Ã¢â¬Å"put the United States Ã¢â¬Ëat still greater riskÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Baier). Fox News did not forget to mention how George Bush said that he has a strategy for victory, despite the fact that no specific strategy is discussed. Lastly, Fox News included RumsfeldÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Ã¢â¬Å"most citizens in Iraq are not supporting their (the insurgentsÃ¢â¬â¢) causeÃ¢â¬ (Baier). By comparison, CNN took this story in a completely different direction by adding negative views on the war to its coverage. CNN begins by mentioning that the war is becoming Ã¢â¬Å"increasingly unpopularÃ¢â¬ (Bush: No Iraq Pullout Without Victory) in the United States. CNN continues on with its unflattering views by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"About 159,000 troops are in Iraq, up from about 138,000 in the summerÃ¢â¬ (Bush: No Iraq Pullout Without Victory). This shows how unsuccessful the Bush administration has been at accomplishing its goal of getting the troops out of Iraq. The CNN articles also reminds the reader that the war began under the assumption that Iraq was in possession of weapons of mass destruction and that despite this claim, no weapons had been found in the country. This is something that the government would desperately like the people to forget, but CNN will not let them. CNN also gives figures on the death toll of American troops in Iraq. This is another soft spot, as those who oppose the war often bring up the fact that many American soldiers have died fighting in a war that has no point. A quick mention is also given of anti-war demonstrators that showed up while Bush was speaking. Fox made no mention of this because it is very anti-Bush. Finally, CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s coverage of this story included the opinions of Senator Jack Reed, who is a Democrat from Rhode Island. His opinions are anti-Bush, due to his political affiliation. Reed comments add to the negative picture this article paints of Bush. These two articles cover the exact same thing, but they are obviously spun in very different directions. While some of the same quotes are used in both stories, they are not used in the same manner. Due to their conservative viewpoints, which coincide with the Republican PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoints, Fox News focuses on the positives that are coming out of Iraq. Since Fox News is seen as a supporter of the Bush administration, it will slant its stories to paint Bush and his associated in a positive manner. Fox also does not include any opposing statements or differing points of view in its article, which gives the reader the impression that what they are reporting is the only opinion of this subject matter. CNN, on the other hand, is better at exploring both sides of the story. This article is more centerist than anything else, as it presents both sides of the story, although perhaps not equally. CNN says a lot of negative things about the war in Iraq, due to its liberal ideology, but it also does include what Rumsfeld said about certain things. CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s coverage does not follow one particular political ideology but can rather be interpreted as anti-conservative which, in turn, makes it anti-Bush. Seeing as how a story that quotes both Bush and Rumsfeld would only give one political view, CNN brought in the help of a Democratic Senator, in order to give a differing ideology on the matter. Both of these networks take the events that occurred, and organize them in a manner that will appeal to their viewers the most, even though both of them leave things out and include outside resources that contribute to their goals. This trend, however, has led to the public becoming Ã¢â¬Å"increasingly cynical toward the news media, as reflected in the slumping credibility ratings for many outlets. More generally, a majority of Americans (53%) agree with the statement Ã¢â¬ËI often dont trust what news organizations are saying. Ã¢â¬â¢ And while 43% disagree with that statement, just 9% completely disagree with itÃ¢â¬ (Attitudes Toward the News: News Audiences Increasingly Politicized). A historical event that that has been changed due to a particular political ideology is the happenings surrounding the Nicaraguan election of 1990. The American government had the ideology that the Sandinistas, who were in power in Nicaragua, were not good for American interests in the region. It was reported in the New York Times just after the election that this was a long overdue victory for the opposition party, as American political ideals did not agree with the Socialist regime in Nicaragua. David Shipler wrote, It is true that partly because of the confrontation with the U. S. , Nicaraguas economy suffered terribly, setting the stage for the widespread public discontent with the Sandinistas reflected in Sundays balloting. But few governments become moderate during a war; the contra war strengthened Sandinista hard-liners and probably contributed to their oppressive policies. The way to resolution opened only when Congress suspended the war, in effect, to give the Sandinistas a chance to proceed democratically. . . . Thus, Nicaraguas election has vindicated WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s fledgling program of providing public, above-board funding to help democratic procedures take root in countries with authoritarian regimes. (A. 27) Due to the slant that the American government wanted to put on this situation, they only released certain information to the general public, which gave the public a favorable opinion of how the situation was handled. The American government portrayed Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega as a vicious man who tormented his people for years and only lost the his power when he agreed to a democratic election. In reality, however, Ortega won an election in 1984 by quite a wide margin and had been making strides in Nicaragua, until a group of U. S. backed militants began a war with him and his troops. This is the dominant ideology as well. During this time period, the United States was able to use the fact that the Sandinistas are a left wing party, as the Communist Party in the Soviet Union was, in order to gain support for their actions in Nicaragua. The American government to this day continues to tell the people of the United States that U. S. policy aims to continue supporting the consolidation of the democratic process initiated in Nicaragua with the 1990 election of President Chamorro. The United States has promoted national reconciliation, encouraging Nicaraguans to resolve their problems through dialogue and compromise. It recognizes as legitimate all political forces that abide by the democratic process and eschew violence. U. S. assistance is focused on strengthening democratic institutions, stimulating sustainable economic growth, and supporting the health and basic education sectors. (Background Note: Nicaragua) A differing political view, however, is held by Noam Chomsky. He has reported much different happenings in Nicaragua, due to his political angle being much different than the American governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s and the New York TimesÃ¢â¬â¢. He has reported that Ã¢â¬Å"Nicaragua wasÃ¢â¬ ¦exceptional in the strength of that governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitmentÃ¢â¬ ¦to improving the condition of the people and encouraging their active participation in the development processÃ¢â¬ (Chomsky 42) which makes the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ goal of keeping the Sandinistas out of power seem odd. The real reason why the American government did not want to have the Sandinistas in power was that they believed in distributing wealth evenly among its population. They had a steal from the rich and give to the poor-type of mentality. This goes against the capitalist society that the United States prides itself on. The American government saw that socialism had the potential to work in Nicaragua and was worried about what kind of message that would send to the rest of the world. As it turns out, reports Chomsky, the American government funded the insurgents that caused so many problems for the Nicaraguan government while they were in power. They were provided with American weapons and resources, in order to make the people of Nicaragua believe that the government was not in control of things, in order to make them vote for someone one. None of these things were reported very regularly in American newspapers because of political views and they have changed the way this entire situation has been viewed in history. Throughout history, politics have played a huge role in the way news is reported. The political ideologies held by an individual or agency can impact the story that the public hears. Many times, different agencies will report on the exact same story, but with different results. Other times, the real story does not make it to the mainstream media, but rather comes out later in books and journals. These political views change the way things are reported and also the way things are remembered in the future. It is entirely possible to have your entire memory of an event molded by the network you switched to in order to watch the coverage. Past, present, and future events have all been manipulated by media and this trend will continue because there will always be political bias. Because of this, it is important to get news from as many sources as possible, and make an educated decision on what the real truth is.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Benefits of Organizational Reflection A successful organization can be described as thinking and seeing organization. Such organizations are characterized by high levels of information flow and awareness among all its members. The availability of information improves the awareness and understanding of organizational weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities (Reynolds and Vince 2004). The organization members are also able to understand the history and strategic future plans for their organization as well as full awareness of the resources within the organization and the changing competitor environment. On the other hand, a thinking organization is an understanding organization that has a well stipulated vision, mission, objectives and the business environment that are well understood by all the stakeholders. Many organizational businesses collapse because they lack both foresight and hind sight necessary for understanding the current position of the organization. In ensuring an organization adopts the thinking and seeing style, reflection must become a part of the organizational practices and culture. Reflection must be integrated in all the organizational activities because generation of organizational knowledge can be done by any member of the organization irrespective of the level or the location in which s/he operates. Reflection is therefore a process that involves spending critical time away from the normal work routine in which individuals or groups think and interpret both personal or organization issues with the aim of getting previous experiences and lessons that may benefit a present situation (Boud, Cressey and Docherty 2006). At the corporate level, organizations set retreat days for its staff as well as reflection sessions so that staff can reflect on what their have achieved, the way they have performed, their compliance with the organization strategies, the challenges and threats they have faced as well as the experiences weaknesses and registered strengths. Reflection allows organization present ideas and previous experiences into usable knowledge and actions. Reflection can be necessitated by personal experiences as well as organizational performance especially if the organization isnt meeting its set goals and objectives. Reflection process is very dependent on knowledge management because it deals with intangible assets that need to be created and shared both inside and outside the organization to create a database of important information and knowledge that can be utilized later to handle challenges in the organization. Reflection starts with raw experiences which are analyzed to information then associated with relevant skills and values to become knowledge which is main focus of many organizations. Just like knowledge management, reflection involves capture and identification of ideas, information or knowledge then distributing it to appropriate individual within the organization leading to its application in a particular situation in the organization. The sole purpose of reflection is to create important knowledge that any organization will need in its present or future performance. Reflection is also part of organizational learning that is a knowledge management facet intended to equip staff wit h important knowledge and skills that will improve the operations and performance of the organization. Greenwood (2000), notes that the success and growth of organizations is highly depended on learning and knowledge generation (p. 126). Learning in an organizational setting is not only limited to individual knowledge acquisition but also involves the combined learning abilities of all staff in that organization. Notably, individual learning is a subset and component of organization and without it, organizational learning wont exist. Organizational learning is a result of challenges that face employees in their working activities thus initiation of learning and advancement in knowledge to solve such challenges. Though, challenges do not guarantee learning to occur, they combine with experiences to provide data and information which form the basis for learning. Generation of actions and problem solving are the key components of reflection at the workplace. Organizational reflection has presented required environment for self directed learning, action learning, problem and challenge based learning and to a greater extend the organizational learning (Reynolds and Vince 2004). Managers have noticed the necessity of reflection in their organization and they acknowledge that failure to reflect in the organization is equal to inviting the collapse of the operation of the organization. However, organizations have failed in implementing reflection strategies such that execution processes that go beyond individual mandate and involve groups of members or the whole organization are not usually implemented thus compromising the use of organizational experience and limit implementation of expected actions. The application of reflection in organizational operations has received considerable attention in the last few decades. Organizations have created independent departments with adequate resources to enable reflection process to occur and to work on the results of the reflection processes. The increased attention to reflection has been triggered by recognition of learning and generation of knowledge as components of organizational productivity and performance. Though learning and generation of knowledge may not be the only factors that can contribute to organizational change and performance, they play an all-round function in ensuring that all other resources in the organization are well coordinated to realize organizational goals. Reflection is therefore an important human process that involves reviewing and understanding past experiences then drawing lessons from them. Reflection is less known in work places and managers have little knowledge concerning its role and importance in the organization of activities and improving performance (Boud, Cressey and Docherty 2006). There have been fewer opportunities for the practice of reflection at work particularly because many organizations have not yet established the role that can be played by real and guided reflection. However, the 21st century has witnessed increasing concern and appreciation of the role that organizational reflection can play in fostering work results as well as improving employee learning. The recognition of reflection as an integral part of organizational management has triggered different kind of organizational learning and education that are in line with the traditional processes of organizational learning. Boud, Cressey and Docherty (2006) point out that productive organizational reflection is an adoption of the general individual reflection that is focused much on the use of past experience to generate important solution to present and future problems as well as promoting organizational training and learning (p. 12). Productive organizational reflection has several important elements that combine to provide a structured system to guide generation and analysis of actions from experiences. Organizational intent and collective orientation element tries to create a distinction and a point of convergence between individual and organizational reflection. While previous reflections have focused on individual experience and generation of knowledge, productive organizational reflection is focused on collaborative review of experiences that lead to taking appropriate actions with and for other participants with an aim of benefiting the organization as well as the whole group involved in the ref lective activity. Such reflection is done in a situation of the organization and must be incorporated and address the target of the organization. Collective reflection may be done at different levels of the organization depending on the organization management structure. Reflection may take place at the top management, middle management level, and low level or at the small working groups and this may happen internal or external to the organization. However, collective reflection always starts at individual level after which separate reflections are combined and actions drawn from them. This element of organizational reflection ensures the interests of the individual members, the workgroup and the organization are taken into consideration. The other element of organizational reflection is its importance in integrating knowledge, learning and work. Productive organizational reflection can occur in any location, but its always confined to the working activities and any reflections outside it wont be considered a practice of organizational reflection. Reflection is therefore triggered by work activities though there might be selected cases where importance and valuable reflection occur outside the context of working environment. Organizational reflection operates in the space that is created between the connections of work activities, the process of learning and generating knowledge. It therefore provides the link between knowledge acquisition and its production. Therefore, a productive organizational reflection will always seek to strike a balance between learning from past experiences to generate appropriate knowledge that will help in improving the work activities. The relationship between the individual and organizational development is another controversial element of productive organizational reflection. Reflection in organization fosters both organizational and individual development. Organizational reflection has a developmental value to the organization and the staff because it has become part of the main organizational practices that are relied upon in designing solutions to present and future organizational problems while placing the staff at better positions to deal with organizational and individual challenges that may pose a thereat in future. Thus distinguishing individual from organizational reflection may be a challenge in cases where staff does not get special time to reflect on the organizational operations. Furthermore, organizational reflection is open, dynamic but unpredictable process because it can happen at anytime when organizations do not have procedures to guide the process of reflection. Just like other form of reflect ion, results of organizational reflection cannot be wholly predicated. In many instances, it doesnt yield the expected results but unintended consequences which may be used to address another organizational issue. This type of reflection is very dynamic in that a present successful refection may create an organizational barrier in future. Therefore, organizations rely on past experience to modify the future thinking and behavior of the organization through the ability to reflect on its previous operations by identifying past performances and activities (Kazi 2005). Organizational reflection is manifested though inquiry and evaluation that involves establishing problems, determining their meaning and developing appropriate solutions. According to (Kazi 2005) organization reflection is a wide process that involves conversion of explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge that produces interpretive knowledge necessary for enhancement of individual knowledge through revisiting common issues and problems (p. 121). Reflective practice isnt an individual process but an organizational procedure that requires individual members of an organization to learn and modify their actions that are vital for organizational progress and performance. Reflection in organization is very important because of its contribution to individual learning which translates to organizational learning. Combination and sharing of individual learning is crucial to realization of organizational learning because individual learning may not present enough experience needed to tackle identified challenges facing an organization. However, some organization do not have appropriate standards that can facilitate sharing of knowledge and experiences especially when mechanisms for such sharing dont exist or the regulation of the organizations do not allow sharing or possibly if the staff do not know how to share such knowledge and experiences. Organizational management and particularly, the reflective manager must device and develop appropriate methods that can facilitate acquisition and sharing of organizational knowledge and experiences. The reflective manager in an organization is responsible for all processes and procedures involved in integrating and transfer of new knowledge, experiences, behavior and skills within and outside the organization. As such, the manager must prove to the employees that reflection is an important activity that is all round and should involve every member of the organization. The manager must ensure that employees learn from previous mistakes, that they know what they think and feel as well as device procedures that will ensure that the employees understand and manage the barriers and challenges that face the organization and then develop strategies for future use through applying learned knowledge and skills. Reflective manager therefore provides appropriate environment for employees to focus on their past experiences as well as current activities that may help in generating required knowledge for use in the current organizational situation. As such, a reflective manager in an organiza tion plays an important role in ensuring generation of knowledge and ideas from past experiences, repackaging of such experiences and ideas for the future use by the organization. Though many organizations have realized the value of reflection in their operations and the many stimuli that encourage reflection, there are equal detractors that hinder reflective practice. The most common challenge that faces organization in trying to use reflection in the management of their operation is the little time allocated for reflection and analysis. The lack of importance that may accrue from informed reflection is the main reason why many managers dont allocate sufficient time for employees to reflect on their experiences and establishes their failures. Organizations allocate very little or no time for their employees to reflect on their accomplishments and performance through individual thinking or group thinking. Many organizations spend most of the time making decisions, building strategies, training and orientations. Such activities must be accompanied by required information and knowledge so that expected results may be achieved. Reflection will therefore help in p rior understanding of a particular task before such task is accomplished so that preparations can be made for anticipated challenges and problems. Organizational reflection as opposed to individual reflection is a very expensive process not only on time allocation but also physical resources. For reflections to be productive, reflecting members must be in an appropriate environment that is free from the normal activities. Creating such an environment is quite expensive and organizations dont usually agree to organize staff retreats to quiet and conducive places that can ensure good results from reflection process. However, managers who have realized the real importance of reflection in their business operations create time and allocate adequate resources for the process of reflection as well as following out the results of such reflection sessions Another significant challenge that face application of reflection in an organization include poor communication systems that an organization uses especially if an organizations uses top-down communication system. The relationship among the individuals with the organizations, the relationships among different workgroups as well as the relationship between the organization and others hinders the creation of openness that is needed in the reflection process. The power of fear for uncertainty may also derail the process of reflection. Additionally, the style of management that an organization uses may affect reflection especially if the organization uses authoritarian style of management where control, leadership and power is centralized to a single individual or group in the organization. Conclusion Reflection is a complex and new organizational process that involves contemplation of tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge and experiences to create new information, knowledge and ideas that can be used to address a challenge within the organization. Through the reflection of the experiences and knowledge, learning capabilities of the staff are enhanced thus dealing with challenges and threats becomes easy for the organization because it has well informed and knowledgeable staff. Therefore, reflection improves the organizational visualization of unexpected realities and results and how to react to them. Organizational reflection is currently gaining attention in many organizations as opposed to ancient times when it was considered to be of no value to the operations and performance of the organizations. Though there are more challenges facing application and implementation of reflection strategies in organizations, positive progress in available which is indicated by the value that or ganizations attach to information and knowledge in accomplishing business activities and solving organizational challenges and problems.