Monday, September 30, 2019
What is the best marketing strategy for Rose Partyware? In both options Ã¢â¬â becoming a manufacturer for Party! private label line of party goods or launching of a branded line of party ware Ã¢â¬â Rose company will face some issues and will embraced some opportunities. In my opinion, there are pros and cons for each alternative: 1. Becoming a manufacturer for Party! Pros: Ã¢â¬ ¢The possibility to become the manufacturer for one of the biggest retail chain in the field with 300 stores Ã¢â¬ ¢Access granted to a huge market having in mind that retail chains are more and more developing in to the first choice of customers in terms of shopping Ã¢â¬ ¢The sales of Rose Company made through Party! represent 20% of total sales. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rose products will have a very good exposure on the shelves of Party!, along with merchandising support and sharply reducing the number of competitors. Ã¢â¬ ¢Eliminating the advertising costs Cons: Ã¢â¬ ¢Risk of productÃ¢â¬â¢s cannibalization Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢Losing brand personality Ã¢â¬â Having no decision capacity regarding the design of the products. Ã¢â¬ ¢35% of total sale are coming from independent shops. Moreover, Tom consider that this type of partners were always a great source of good ideas and encouragement and he felt that he owns them a part of his company success. By accepting PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s! proposal Rose company assumes the risk of losing the partnership with independent shops. Ã¢â¬ ¢Rose brand is a strong one in this field. Their products are the best in terms of quality and customers appreciation. If they accept Party! proposal it occur the risk of losing brand awareness among the customers Ã¢â¬ ¢Lack of trust in retail chains policy regarding the amount of payment for the manufactured products. Ã¢â¬ ¢Losing the opportunity to take advantage of a next-generation technology. Ã¢â¬ ¢Lack of pride among the employees 2. Implement the new technology Pros: Ã¢â¬ ¢Increase brand power which allow Rose to stay ahead of its rivals. Ã¢â¬ ¢This next generation technology will give the opportunities of reducing the total costs by eliminating the expensive filmmaking process. Ã¢â¬ ¢A market research conducted by the company it reveal that, both customers and distributors have positive remarks about the new concept. Ã¢â¬ ¢Some studies results show that the customers are willing to pay even more for RoseÃ¢â¬â¢s new brand than it was suggested to them. So the company has the possibility to increase the price by 6-7% at their new products in order to cover the expenses with advertising. Ã¢â¬ ¢Keeping the innovative spirit of the company Cons: Ã¢â¬ ¢Risk involved by price increasing Ã¢â¬ ¢Customers inconstancy regarding what they say in a market research program vs. what they do in a real life situation As we can see, both alternatives imply as well opportunities and risks. If I were the decision maker in this case I would surely choose the alternative to implement the new technology that will allow the company to create innovative products. I would take this decision based on short and medium/long terms factors. On short term, in terms of sales the actual partnership with Party! represent 20% of total sales while the one with independent shops is 35% of total sales. The diminishing of eventual loses, it can be crucial for the business. In addition, as Tom stated, the independent shops represented a success factor in growth of Rose Company over the years. On a medium/long terms the company has the opportunity to be the pioneer in developing a innovative product with a positive impact among clients and distributors. Is a great opportunity to increase the power of the brand and to put its mark over the entire partyware industry.
Labor market conditions are important especially for the following categories, businesses, individuals, and governments. The nationÃ¢â¬â¢s labor market conditions are constantly monitored by statistical analysis, unemployment rate being the primary metric. In April of 2014, the unemployment rate fell from 6.7% percent to 6.3% percent (Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2014), which was the lowest rate since September of 2008. Since January the unemployment rate had been somewhat flat, but in April 2014 it dropped. However in April, the labor force additionally dropped by 806,000 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2014) meaning the current ratio drop from 6.7% to 6.3% comparatively remains approximately the same as the constant trend. In other words, because of the decrease in workforce, the drop in unemployment may be partially a result of the decrease in workforce. The consistent level of unemployment makes shifts on AD and AS curve minor. When unemployment decreases, as it did in April, a correlation linking the drop in unemployment to an increased demand of goods and services can be made. This increased demand requires the productivity of companies to increase to meet the supply deficit, creating more jobs for individuals. With a greater demand for goods and services, there is a greater need for people to produce them, therefore a decrease in unemployment. Additionally, the decrease in unemployment means household income will improve, providing them with more disposable income. As noted above, because of the increase in demand (seen in the decline in the unemployment rate), a direct correlation can be made to an increase in supply, though delayed. The increase in supply increases the number of new employees as employers look to meet the demand for goods and services, shifting the ASÃ curve to the right as well. In most cases unemployment remains constant, but in US, the high unemployment rate (compared to the past) can have a negative effect on the economy. The steady unemployment rate can reduce the supply of labor in the economy, as unemployed people become discouraged and stop looking for jobs. This would shift the aggregate supply curve to the left. Also employers may use the threat of unemployment to cut wages, exploiting their workers. Expectations The great intangible factor directly affecting the economy currently is peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations for future economic growth. These economic expectations influence the economy greatly. If businesses and households are more optimistic about the future of the economy, they are more likely to buy large items and make new investments, increasing the aggregate demand. The AD can change in a variety of ways. Peoples expectations causes them to spend less or be forced to cut spending, it causes the government to cut its spending, and it causes businesses to be more money conscious when choosing what their investment in goods will be from other companies. As a gauge, many people look at the gross domestic product (GDP), the broadest measure of economic activity, which grew at a 0.1% annual pace in the first quarter of 2014 (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014). This is slow growth compared to recent annual rates of 2% to 3% (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014). Many think the slowdown was caused by the long winter felt throughout the country. These slow growth rates shift both the AD and AS curves to the left, as consumers and business feel the affect or peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"wait and seeÃ¢â¬ attitude in economy. Assuming this is all weather based, the economy should bounce as household moral improves with the warmer spring and summer weather. Consumer expectations are also reflected in their spending. Consumer spending rose 0.3 percent last month after a downwardly revised gain of 0.2 percent in January (Mutikani, Lucia, March 2014), positive for now, but on a larger scale reports show the slowdown in real GDP growth is reflected in the downturn in exports. The exports of industrial supplies and materials as well as foods, feeds, and beveragesÃ declined after increasing in the fourth quarter of 2013. (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014). Additionally, imports have also declined by 0.4 percent in April, after increasing 1.8 percent in the first quarter of 2014 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. April 2014). The April drop was the first monthly decrease since the index fell 0.9 percent in November 2013 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. April 2014). Import prices also fell 0.3 percent over the past 12 months and have not recorded a year-over-year advance since the index increased 0.9 percent from July 2012 to July 2013 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. April 2014). There drops in the US economy are felt in the household sector through the implementation of monetary and physical policy which are used to combat economic declines which directly affect consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation and spending habits. Consumer Income As mentioned above, consumers are still buying things. Consumer spending continues to be a bright spot, growing at a 3% annual pace. (Mutikani, Lucia, March 2014). This occurred even though prices of goods and services bought by U.S. residents rose 1.4 percent in the first quarter, after rising 1.5 percent in the fourth quarter of 2013. Both energy prices and food prices turned up. Excluding food and energy, prices increased 1.4 percent in the first quarter after rising 1.8 percent in the fourth quarter (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014). This illustrates the shift in AD tow the right. Meaning consumers are willing to pay higher prices at current production rates. The increase in consumables indicates consumers have more disposable income to spend on goods and services, and they are not choosing to save. Personal income and personal saving statistic showing that personal income adjusted for inflation and taxes increased 1.9 percent in the first quarter, compared with 0.8 percent in the fourth quarter of 2013 (Mutikani, Lucia, March 2014). Incomes also rose 0.3 percent last month after rising by the same margin in January. Additionally, inflation has remained low. CombiningÃ these factors, consumer spending, price increases, low inflation, increased personal income, will inevitably be forecasted by business as indicators to increase production. Increased production also increase supply, shifting AS to the right as business attempt to meet consumer demand. Interest Rates Interest rates in the United States are the lowest they have been in years. This indicates the policy and stance taken by the government for lending money. The government is trying to entice consumers to file for loans as well as encourage banks to lend and approve loans. With interest rates this low and consumer income increasing, one would expect consumers to increase their buying of more significant items. The aggregate demand curve shows, at various price levels, the quantity of goods and services produced domestically that consumers, businesses, and governments are willing to purchase. The increase in demand for low interest loans would shift the AD curve as a shift to the right. Domestically, the Federal Reserve expected to remain in a Ã¢â¬Å"wait-and-seeÃ¢â¬ mode, hoping to get a clearer picture of U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s future economic strength (Kurtz, Annalyn, April 2014). Moreover, the Federal Reserve has been buying bonds to stimulate the U.S. economy on and off since 2008, but the central bank is now gradually bringing that program to an end. The withdrawal process is expected to reduce bond purchases to around $45 billion a month (Kurtz, Annalyn, April 2014), and this process potentially will shift the nations monetary policy to focus more on interest rates rather than adjustments to the monetary base. These changes to the interest rates will impact capital goods decisions made by consumers and by businesses. Lower interest rates will lower the costs of major products, such as houses, and will increase business capital project spending because of the reduction in long-term investment costs. Such changes will move the aggregate demand curve will down and to the right. But, in the event of an interest rate hike, the higher real interest ratesÃ will make capital goods relatively more expensive and cause the aggregate demand curve to shift up and to the left. Recommendations AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s recent financial crisis and the anticipated future economic outlook can be traced back to 2007 when the U.S. housing bubble burst. The bank failures created a dominos affect, creating an economic meltdown in all sectors of the US economy. Despite government attempts to help the situation, the economy has slowed and has slipped in and out of recession. As a result, the current government policies have not been effective, creating hesitations in consumer spending. Since 2008, the actions taken by the Federal Reserve have put the U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s economy in jeopardy. To stem the economic slide of the U.S. housing collapse, the Federal Reserve has printed off trillions of dollars and has increased government spending in the economy hoping the influx of cash will jump start economic activity. But is has had an inverse affect. This dilution of the monetary base has diluted the value of the U.S. dollar (USD) domestically and internationally and has caused concern of consumer spending in the loanable funds market. Consumer spending is a 69% of the US GDP (The World Bank, 2013). An increase in spending would stimulate additional demand for products. With an increase in demand, business would increase productivity resulting in an improved GDP and lower unemployment. Additionally, in 2014 one of the greatest uses of a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income is to pay health care costs. The Bureau of Economic Analysis noted that the increase in health care costs was driven primarily by the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Removing the Affordable Health Care Act will improve consumer spending, as their disposable income percentage will increase. When the financial crisis began in 2008, the U.S. national debt stood approximately at $10 trillion. Based on the US Treasuries own figures, the national debt will reach be close to $20.0 trillion by the end of this decade (US Treasury Department Ã¢â¬â Treasury Direct, 2014), greater than our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP. Reducing governmentÃ debt takes a long time, especially with the current international influences (China, Japan, EU). A fiscal policy to increased taxes and reduced government spending would be a place to start. Additionally, a reduction in monetary base will again, strengthen the USD internationally, helping facilitate and increase import/exports. Part 2: Evaluation of Recommendations Keynesian Perspective: Based upon the thorough analysis completed above, the Keynesian model is an appropriate mechanism for stimulating an economy that is growing but at a much slower rate than what is typical during a period of economic expansion. After a couple of years of substantive growth, the numbers for the first quarter of 2014 showed a GDP increase of just 0.1%. While the unemployment numbers continue to show a decline. While stubbornly remaining at 6.7% nationally through April, the most recent numbers show significant decline to 6.3%. The mortgage interest rates fell recently to 4.29% as the housing market has slowed down recently. While the Fed is beginning to slow down buying treasury bonds, it will continue to keep interest rates low until all signs point to GDP growth returning to a normal rate of 3.28% annually. Those numbers are indicative of annual GDP growth rates from 1948 to 2009. The first quarter of 2009 saw the economy shrink by nearly 5% following the market collapse and the bank bailouts just before President Obama took office. Subsequently, the bailout of GM and Chrysler in 2009 also impacted the economy as well, but was necessary to save the industry and jobs in Detroit and elsewhere for parts manufacturers and suppliers. The risk of course was the loss of more than a million jobs, but in the end the loss was $10.5 billion in taxpayer money not repaid by GM. Classical Macroeconomic theory assumes that market conditions will sort themselves out, but the confluence of catastrophic economic issues such as: the real estate market collapse, bank insolvency, the stock market collapse and the auto industry bailouts meant looking at long-term solutions wouldÃ not provide the confidence in the markets and consumers alike. Short-term or stop gap measures needed to stem the downward spiral to depression and economic contraction were and are required to right the economic ship. Keynesian economic theory is more prone to acceptance of government stimulus as it relied on government spending during economic downturns. They Keynesians believe that the economy is made up of consumer spending, business investment and government spending and because of this, Fed monetary policy adjustments should be made to promote banks to make loans, businesses to invest in growth and expansion and consumers to have more buying power due to lower interest rates. When consumer spending is decreasing, the Keynesian theory believes that the government spending can help with economic growth. The current course of action taken by the Fed and the President should be continued for the foreseeable future until economic conditions stabilize back to the norms over the last 60-plus years. Once GDP growth returns to expansionist highs and inflation begins to rise, there may be a need to take corrective action again to slow the economy down, but for now that is not an issue. Since economic growth is lacking, government intervention is needed to help regulate and jumpstart the economy. This will allow banks to lend more, businesses to invest more and households to spend more. It is crucial for these three entities to do as such since it will help the economy grow and progress. Classical Perspective: A portion of the AS curve that is almost vertical is associated with a real GDP rate that fully employs a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. At a rate of output, the nation has reached the limitation of its short run capacity, so an attempt to increase employment or output beyond this rat would result only in a higher aver price level. The theory is built on the fact that in the long run, a nations move gradually and automatically moves toward full employment. This inexorable like movement toward full employment is theÃ result of supply and demand forces that cause prices (wages, interest rates, and exchange rates) to adjust so that markets clear. And after enough time, the market will settle the supply and demand in all markets, and thereby eliminate any imbalances, such as employment. Since many classical economists do not believe that government spending gives power to the public sector and decreasing the private sector, they do not fully agree with too much government spending as it ex ploits a lot of economic resources. Example: Ã¢â¬Å"Suppose a nation had excessive unemployment. Classical economist would agree that a major cause of the unemployment was an average real wage rate that was above equilibrium. At this wage rate the amount of labor supplied exceeds the amount demanded, resulting in unemployment. The excessive supply of labor would put downward pressure on real wages. Falling real wages would then have two reinforcing affects that acted simultaneously to bring the labor market back into equilibrium. First, lower real wages would increase the incentive for businesses to hire workers; second, they would reduce the number of individuals in the workforce. For instance, instead of looking for work, some individuals might stay in school or remain homemakers. If real wages fell the amount of labor supplied would equal the amount demanded and unemployment would be solved.Ã¢â¬ (Marthinsen, John E. (2007)) The classical perspective emphasizes on the belief that government spending is detrimental to the economy and that the market itself is self-sufficient and can automatically adjust to increases and decrease of employment, consumer spending, business investment and so on. The current government policies have not been effective and when looking at it from this classical perspective, it might be necessary for the government to step back and let the mark equilibrate itself. References: Bureau of Labor Statistics. (April 2014), U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ximpim.nr0.htm Bureau of Labor Statistics. (May 2014), Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS14000000 Conerly, Bill (2014) Economic Forecast 2014-2015: Looking Better With Help From Oil And Gas Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/billconerly/2014/01/22/economic-forecast-2014-2015-looking-better-with-help-from-oil-and-gas/ Congressional Budget Office, (February 2014). The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2014 to 2024 Retrieved from http://www.cbo.gov/publication/45010 Kurtz, Annalyn, (April 2014). U.S. Economy Slows to Stall-Speed Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2014/04/30/investing/gdp-economy Marthinsen, John E. (2007) Managing in a Global Economy: Demystifying International Macroeconomics. Mason, OH: Thomas Southwestern Mutikani, Lucia (March 2014). U.S. consumers lift spending, but sentiment slips. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/28/us-usa-economy-idUSBREA2R0UB20140328 The World Bank. (2013). Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (% of GDP) Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.CON.PETC.ZS U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, (April 2014). National Income and Product Accounts Gross Domestic Product: First Quarter 2014 (advance estimate). Retrieved from https://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm US Treasury Department Ã¢â¬â Treasury Direct, (2014). Historical Debt Outstanding Ã¢â¬â Annual 2000 Ã¢â¬â 2012 Retrieved from http://www.treasurydirect.gov/govt/reports/pd/histdebt/histdebt_histo5.htm
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Almost everyone enjoys to eating fast food because it is cheap. Many people these days prefer to eat food that makes their food fast and also they do not have to spend more than five dollars. This nation is surrounded with fast food restaurants and there is no one way people can miss one down their street and in every mall. I work at the mall and I tend to eat fast food since it is the only thing near me. My three favorite fast food restaurants which are WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Dairy Queen and Steak Ã¢â¬ân- Shake. One of my favorite fast food restaurants is WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s. When I was in high school at the beginning of my senior year I worked at WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s and of course I ate their food since I had a fifty percent discount so the food was really cheap. I always craved the spicy chicken nuggets with sweet and sour dipping sauce. Ever since I worked there I know how each dipping sauce taste when I always ordered the spicy chicken nuggets. I love the honey, barbeque, honey mustard, ranch and of course my favorite sweet and sour sauce. I also loved how my manager prepared the sweet tea because it was not too sweet and actually tasted like homemade sweet tea. I am a fanatic of sweet tea and pretty much have tried it at every fast food restaurant I have eaten at. Also I love to enjoy my combos with a dessert. I usually get a small chocolate frosty. I love the taste of it because it reminds me of chocolate milk. Also because it is very creamy and sweet this is a great combination for dessert. These are all the many favorite things I love to eat at WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s. My second favorite fast food restaurant is Dairy Queen. They have the best desserts there such as the blizzards, the sundaes, banana splits, their famous waffle cone ice creams and the DQ ice cream sandwich. I always tend to eat the ice cream cones because I do not have to spend that much money the cones cost one dollar depending on the size. When I am at my aunt apartments my cousins and I always walk to Dairy Queen since it is not too far from the apartment just three to five minutes walking. We go there every time when we are hungry or we just go there to talk and eat some food. It also provides free internet which is great to check Facebook or our emails. Also it has a great video game player for when we bring our little sister and cousins so they will not get bored. Another reason I love eating at dairy queen is their chili cheese fried burritos. They are so delicious and juicy especially when they put the chili all over it and sprinkle some shredded cheddar cheese. I love to eat at Dairy Queen. My third favorite fast food restaurant is Steak-n-Shake. I always wish Mesquite had one but they do not so I have to drive all the way to Rockwall to go to Steak-n-Shake which is 20 to 30 minutes from my home. I love it there especially there juicy Cheddar Cheese Steak Burger combo which is good money spent because it is only $4. 99. I love how the food is very affordable and of great quality. I also love to get their famous milkshakes. My all-time favorite is the chocolate chip cookie dough. It has chunks of cookie dough mixed with tasty creamy vanilla ice cream. This fast food restaurant is not like not ordinary fast food place because it provides waiters and it provides amazing fast food service. It usually takes 5 to 10 minutes to have my food ready which overall is great. I never get tired of going to Steak-n-Shake because of its great quality of food and service. Fast food may not be good for us at times but it is delicious. All three of these fast food restaurants WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Dairy Queen, and Steak-n-Shake are my favorite because reasons I enjoy eating their food. They all provide great quality of food, fast service and cheap prices. I enjoy these fast food restaurants.
Many villagers and small town dwellers want a living in big cities. With some expectations, they make a movement from villages to big cities. This migration from rural areas to big cities is called urbanization. There are two kinds of factors why rural people seek for urban life. The first one is urban pull factor. They dream for higher wages, better housing and utilities, better school and hospital, more jobs opportunity, and more experience that they can get it all from a living in big cities as they think. The second one is urban push factor. We know that most of rural areas people are farmers. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s not much else to do anymore in the village but wait for harvest time and without higher level of education, availability of media, or facilities that they need, they might be stimulated to move to urban areas. But after they reached what they called their dreamland, most of them must face more problems than what they had when they lived in villages. They will face some problems because of their insufficient abilities, experience, education, and skills those are needed for a good living in big cities. For instance, they canÃ¢â¬â¢t provide housing or maybe they canÃ¢â¬â¢t find any job. And then they just stranded with the option of staying in cities or coming back home. As the result of urbanization, cities have more problems to overcome such as pollution, overpopulation, drug abuse, congestion, crime, poverty, traffic jam, slum areas, and many more. There must be something to solve these problems. Government and citizens should be involved because taking care of city problems canÃ¢â¬â¢t be done entirely by government. The community can be even more successful because it deals directly with problem areas. As the solution to solve those problems government can provide housing, create a new regulation transmigration program, provide skills training program, or start to develop in rural areas. Beside that, citizens can help to succeed governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s programs with giving charity, offering some good job to jobless people, becoming foster parents who subsidize the education fee for underprivileged children, or offering a low cost housing for homeless people. Last of all, urbanization not only impacts a better future than living in a village, but also worse. Villagers must consider about their ability to deal with a living in problem-ridden city before they intend to move to big cities. Economic change has helped lead America into urban crisis for the following reasons. First of all, because urban problems are no longer confined to the inner city, but are regional in nature. The federal government has, also, largely drawn from the urban policy arena, thereby having cities and sates to develop their own solutions to local problems. Furthermore, the economy of cities is no longer organized around a central business district, but is dispersed throughout a metropolitan region. Next, the national economy has experienced a fundamental reorganization and many cities have experienced the direct effects of deindustrialization and disinvestments. Additionally, the fiscal crisis within the public sector is unprecedented and has seriously negative effects for the provision of services at all levels of government. Finally, the nature of work itself has changed within cities as more women enter the labor market; the changing nature of work has affected the urban family in many ways, many of which have direct ramifications for social welfare and family policies. There is a great amount of inequality of income in some cities. Most of those who fall bellow the poverty line is African Americans and Hispanics. This is because they are placed in low paying jobs. As more and more people immigrate into the country, there are less and less jobs to go around. This creates a larger poverty gap. People just coming here to America are placed in very low-income jobs. This is all they can get if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak any English. For example, here at Rider the cleaning people are all Spanish. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak any English, and their job is to be the cleaning crew. These are the only types of jobs that these people can get most of the time, and this makes our percentage of people who are in poverty go up. Another problem that is contributing to the urban crisis is the rise of single-parent families and Ã¢â¬Ëpresent-orientatedÃ¢â¬â¢ values. The problem here is that the divorce rate in America is getting higher and higher, and also the amount of children being had out of marriage is greatly increasing also. This creates one parent raising a child. The problem here is that there is no proper care for children in this situation. The parent has too much responsibility. They are to provide for the family, as well as adequately care for their children. When the single parent has to go to work, to get money to pay for a place to live, food, and clothing, there leaves no time to watch and take care of the children, meaning children are left to take care of themselves after school is over and this result in a lot of problems for the communities. These children cause trouble. They are the ones who commit most crimes in an urban environment. This is why in an urban city there is a lot more crime. There are a lot of children left unsupervised for most of the day and night. Another problem is the ethnic tensions that there are in America. There are many things that are wrong with this. The first problem is that because of racism, people are secluded. They are pushed to all live together, because people donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to live next to them. This is how a ghetto is started, and slums. All the people of low incomes live in the same neighborhood together. They also contain the high crime rates because these are the people who are also of single parent families and their children are left unsupervised. Another problem with racism is that people are given lower paying jobs because of their race, and also, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to have to same amount of experience as other people. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to as good of schools, and they then might not be able to go to college, so they are stuck. They can only get a low paying job. This creates families to be stuck in poverty for generations, they can never get out, unless with government assistance of some sort. Then this makes the inner cities all full of low-income families, and creates a poverty stricken area that cannot be fixed in any way. If there were more integration within neighborhoods, then we wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have these areas. Another reason why urban America is in crisis is because of the underground urban economy. This also causes a lot of crime in urban cities. The people in these cities who are poor, and are trying to find a way out, usually try by doing something illegal. A big example of this is drug sale. People start selling drugs to get money. This creates a lot of problems. The selling of illegal materials results in murders, and robberies, to either get the drugs, pay for the drugs, or avoid getting caught selling them. Another example of this is people stealing things, like car parts, and selling it on the black market. All of these illegal acts always result in something that makes the cities look worse and worse to live in. I know that when I go into Little Rock I am really afraid, because I know that there is a really high amount of crime there, and I am always thinking that someone is going to try to shoot me for my car, rob a store that I am in, or something else. Stereotypes of cities are easily created, and this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help the situation. Also, the advancement in technology has lead many people to be left without jobs. This technology had created more unskilled labor, and putted skilled labor to a minimum. People, who had been specialists at doing certain skilled work, are constantly being replaced by machines that can do the same work faster and cheaper. This creates a huge economy gap. It makes the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, by giving all the money from the profit of sales to the company owners, rather than to employees. So, the people who were already well off, have even more money, and those people who were middle class citizens are now jobless, and can not afford to take care of their families. The problem here is obvious, the more jobs that are lost because people are replaced by machines, the greater the amount of people who become in poverty. The numbers keep increasing. The UNFPA report we are launching today is of great importance and very timely: Ã¢â¬Å"unleashing the potential of urban growthÃ¢â¬ , as the reportÃ¢â¬â¢s subtitle indicates, represents the greatest challenge of this century. The diagnosis made in the report is beyond dispute: urbanization is inevitable, but it can also be positive. Furthermore, the report focuses on poverty since it is poor people who will make up a large part of future growth. The report also focuses on the situation of women and young people. Projections suggest that in 2030, 60% of the population will be less than 18 years old. This is a very explosive situation if prevailing development models continue to exclude young people. My own research in various African capitals indicates a clear deterioration in the situation of young people, particularly with respect to access to paid employment. Younger people are taking more time than previous generations to find work and more often find themselves in precarious jobs in the informal sector. A society that does not provide challenging opportunities to its youth is a failed society. The situation is already catastrophic in the cities of the poor regions of the world and it is obvious that young people will not accept being excluded or marginalized. They will resort to alternative means, including violence, to challenge a world that leaves them so little space. I would suggest that this is urbanizationÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest challenge is giving young people access to decent jobs that match their aspirations. In short, we must recognize the great merit of this report, which identifies the real problems and makes an extremely valid diagnosis.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Brief a - Case Study Example Despite the presence of a valid handgun permit the officer issued Washington a summons to show in court. The key issue is that of Melvin WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s interlocutory appeal in retaliation of the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s denial of his motion that demands that all evidence discovered while the vehicle was searched be repressed. He states that the search was in direct violation of the Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution and also that of Article 1, Section 11 of the Indiana Constitution. On November 12, 2008, Washington was charged by the State for the possession of marijuana, as a Class A offense and a Class C infraction for not having fully functional headlights. On 29th April, 2009, Washington appealed to suppress the drugs found in his vehicle. This motion was denied by the court on the 18th of May, after an analysis of evidence and briefs from both parties. However the court accepted WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s interlocutory appeal in August. The justification for the bases of the decision taken by the court is primarily focused on placing a paramount importance on officer safety. The action taken by Officer Reynolds was therefore relevant as he conducted a search for the weapon in order to ensure his safety. There are divergent opinions pertaining to the case mostly because of the lack of a warrant obtained in order to search the vehicle when no prior suspicion was aroused and Washington has cooperated to the fullest. Hence there was no legitimate concern for the officers safety or any solid bases to believe if any crime was or had been conducted. Based on this notion the search was illegal and hence the evidence it resulted in should have been
Influence Of Slope Aspects On Woodland Ecosystem Of Duhok - Dissertation Example Studies have shown that position of a slope in an ecosystem affect the quality of organic material, soil chemistry, and nutrient cycling, largely; it affects the soil quality than even the type of bedrock beneath the soil (Yimer, Sting and Adelkadir 2006, p.95). Research that has been conducted on influence of topographical features on soils in southern Italy clearly demonstrate that soils originating from the same parent material, with the same vegetative covering and climate, with the only difference being the position of the landscape produced different and varied microclimatic conditions (Chen, Hsieh, Jiang, Hsieh and Sun 1997, p.230). In the northern temperate climatic zone, the aspect of a slope was found to be a huge influence of the microclimatic conditions of the area mainly influenced by the temperature levels (Coleman, Crossley and Hendrix 2004, p.312). This is because the amount of solar that area experiences will determine the levels of temperature and water in the soil, the inherent characteristics of the soil will be affected (Fu, Liu, Ma and Zhu 2004, p.48). In the Pinus laricio forests of southern Italy, the north-facing slope receives higher insolation and as a result, there is low moisture content that is also connected to the scanty vegetative cover and insolating effects of small vegetation (Gong, Chen, Fu and Wei 2007, p.1). Differences in the soil microbial activities offer the different type of plant species. These plant species depend on the soil moisture, root activities, temperature and organic matter that return to the soil through the litter that falls from the plants (Gong, Brueck, Giese, Zhang, Sattelmacher and Lin 2008, p.484). Studies have been carried out to determine the effects of climatic conditions on the soil and vegetation properties, however no studies have been carried to determine the influence of aspect in the soil and vegetation properties(Tewksbury and Lloyd 2001, p.426).
Friday, September 27, 2019
Hamlet's Describe Ophelia's Mad Scene - Essay Example Ophelia leaves and re-enters, this time singing of the way her father was buried. Her lyrics are quite meaningful and bring the weaknesses of Gertrude and Claudius to the limelight. Her madness is important for Claudius because he thinks it to be the reason for a change in HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude. Laertes is provoked by the saddening songs of his sister. Her songs remind Laertes of his killed father. Therefore, his passion to take revenge of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder flares up because of opheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s songs. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s indication of the seduction of maids causes the audience to think as if Hamlet has had an affair with her on a physical level, though this mystery remains unresolved throughout the play. Gertrude is particularly disturbed by OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s song because inspired Laertes may harm Claudius taking him for the murderer of Polonius. Later, Ophelia offers different flowers to Claudius, Gertrude and Laertes. To Laertes, Ophelia presents Rosemary and Pansies. To Cl audius, Ophelia hands over Daisies and Rues and she gives Columbines and Fennel to Gertrude. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s age, each of these flowers had standard meanings. Pansies and Rosemary were used to signify remembrance. Thus, by giving Laertes these flowers, Ophelia essentially makes Laertes remember his father and encourages him to take his revenge. Columbines and Fennels signified unfaithfulness and flattery respectively.
Discovery, Appearance and Meaning of Cave paintings in France and Spain - Essay Example The essay "Discovery, Appearance and Meaning of Cave paintings in France and Spain" explores Cave paintings in France and Spain. Nearly two hundred cave paintings have been discovered so far in France and Spain, and they still continue, as the recent discovery of cave paintings in the Vilhonneur forests, in the Charente region of western France suggest. However, the cave paintings in the Lascaux Cave of Montignac, in the Dordogne region of southwest France, and Altamira, in northwest Spain, still remain the more significant examples of pre-historic cave paintings. The initial discovery of the caves, and the paintings at Altamira were made in the later half of the nineteenth century by accident. In 1868 a hunterÃ¢â¬â¢s dog chasing a fox fell among some boulders, and the hunter, in attempting to rescue the dog discovered the entrance to the famous cave. The cave paintings took more than a decade later to be discovered, again by accident. The owner of the estate in which the cave was located was an amateur archeologist. His young daughter accompanied him on one of his trips into the cave, to look for tools, in 1879. She looked up at the ceiling, and became the first person in modern times to espy the herd of red animals painted across the ceiling. Initially these paintings were not accepted as pre-historic paintings, and believed to be forgeries a mere twenty years old. In the beginning of the twentieth century efforts of the French priest Henri Breuil made the world aware of this finest example.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Euthanasia - Research Paper Example Thereafter, the attitudes of medical personnel are examined, in light of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethics and morality, and based on academic studies cited. In summary, it is established that the level of commitment medical personnel Ã¢â¬â both physicians and nurses Ã¢â¬â have to their chosen religion, the more negative their attitudes to euthanasia are. The paper then touches on legislative and public approaches to this phenomenon, and contrasts these to the nature and aims of medicine, as these are understood by the public. Both the reliability of, and the absolute nature of medical diagnoses, as well as the ability of a terminally ill patient to make rational decisions are highlighted. Both are found to be less than satisfactory, and the paper concludes with the Christian perspective that God has ultimate power over life and death. Euthanasia, therefore, is not a morally or ethically acceptable practice. Gielen, J., Van den Branden, S., Van Iersel, T., & Broeckaert, B. (2011) Ã¢â¬Å"The Diverse Influence of Religion and world View on Palliative-Care NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ Attitudes towards EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ Journal of Empirical Theology 24 (2011) pp. 36-56 Ã © Brill Publishing Holt, J. (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes to euthanasia: the influence of empirical studies and methodological concerns on nursing practiceÃ¢â¬ Nursing Philosophy (2008) Vol. 9 pp. 257-272 Ã ©The Author and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Van den Branden, S. & Broeckaert, B. (2011) Ã¢â¬Å"Living in the hands of God. English Sunni e-fatwas an (non-) voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicideÃ¢â¬ Med Health Care and Philos (2011) Vol. 14 pp. 29-41 DOI 10.1007/s1 1091-010-9280-1 Published online: 1 September 2010 Ã © Springer Science+business Media B.V. 2010 Varelius, J. (2006) Ã¢â¬Å"Voluntary Euthanasia, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and the Goals of MedicineÃ¢â¬ Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2006 Vol. 31 pp. 121-137 ISSN: 0360-4310
Servant Leadership Reflection - Essay Example Secondly, servant leadership might lead to the failure of an organization to achieve its goals. Servant leadership focuses on enhancing growth at both organizational and community level, which hinders centralized growth in the firm (Schaap, 2008). Finally, servant leadership can demean the leadership role of the management in the organization. This servant leadership can cause laxity at the workplace because it eliminates the leadership at the workplace (Schaap, 2008). There is comfort working under servant leadership style because it promotes unity in the organization. In addition, servant leadership enables managers to experience the status of the working conditions of their employees. This type of leadership creates a good working atmosphere among the subordinate workers and the managers. In addition, it is essential to enhancing the public relations of the organization and production of quality products. Consequently, I would be comfortable using the system (Hammer, 2012). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s global society is characterized by the used of advanced technology in all sectors of an organization. The technology enables individuals to share their views regarding the operations of the company. In addition, the modern global society focuses mainly on the corporate social responsibility, which is achievable through servant leadership (Hammer, 2012). Servant leadership is a real leadership approach in the modern society. It enables organizations to relate effectively with the communities through production of high-quality products and corporate social initiatives. In addition, it creates a platform where employees obtain motivation from the leaders that are essential in enhancing productivity and profitability of the organization (Schaap,
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Discuss fully the principle of Acquisitions Management. What is most important What do you think will become more important ove - Research Paper Example Combining the activities of material management does not merely represent a linear chain of one-on-one business relationships, but a web of multiple business networks and relationships [Min, Zhou 2002 qtd. in Sliwczynski, 2012 The main principle of acquisition management is to make strategic purchases or sourcing that is based on a reasonable set of criteria. While these criteria may vary from industry to industry, good acquisition management always require the decision to purchase or acquire to be as sound as possible (Leenders et al., 2006). Sound criteria behind a good purchase decision ranges from favorable negotiated price, good quality of sourced materials and certainty of its availability and price in the future. What is most important? The principles of Acquisition Management are continually reshaping as business and the economic landscape of which it operates continuously change. The primary principle of Acquisition Management as a mere operational function to obtain the nec essary resources to make the products or render the services of a company is already inadequate with the new economic landscape. Thus, the principle of acquisition management as a mere procurement tool has now evolved as a strategic tool which is now the most important principle in the new economic landscape of business. It is no longer enough that business organizations acquire the necessary economic resources for the operation of the company and ensure its availability. Rather, the quality, cost and timeliness of materials that will be acquired should also enhance the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage. The process of acquiring resources itself should bring about strategic competitiveness to the business organization which when combined with the materials procured, will reduce not only the cost associated with acquisition but also the reduction of price of its materials inventory at a quality that is consistent with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to its customers. While the d ynamics of the economic landscape of which Acquisition Management is applied, principles of acquiring resources at a lower price, better quality and availability will not change regardless of the changing modalities which acquisition is processed. What do you think will become more important over the next two decades? Integration of electronic procurement in Acquisition Management One of the major changes in Acquisition Management is the enhancement of its role in business organization from a mere operational tool to acquire the economic resources necessary for business to operate and to process its products and services. Acquisition Management is now a strategic implement of business organizations to edge out competitors and ensure its viability on a long term. Acquisition ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s typical role to merely procure resources (material, process and manpower) for the organization as a mere operational function is now being used to leverage as a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive ad vantage and as a risk management strategy. Procurement or Acquisition Management is now being used as a competitive advantage not only in terms of getting the necessary resources for the operation of the business either to create product or services but also as a strategy to enhance the comp
Macro.analysis Coca-Cola Spain - Essay Example Spain has been a member of NATO since 1982 and also the European Union since 1986. This EU membership represents a very significant part of its foreign policy and supports the efforts of European political mechanisms. Therefore, a stable political situation and diplomatic relations assure development opportunities for organizations that are doing business in Spain, and lessens any risk of possible conflicts and disagreements. ((Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ; 2001; n.p). The Spanish food and beverage sector is a challenging market because of the changing climatic and soil conditions. This results in unpredictable domestic agricultural production. However, the structural reforms implemented in Spain over the last decade imply that Spain will continue to offer a competitive, more secure, stable and reliable environment to conduct business for coke ( Dibbs S Simkin L; 2002 ; np) (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade; 2001; np). A lot of investment in research needs to be done in order to introduce products or packaging that complies to the social and cultural norms of a country. Talking about the trend in Spanish consumer habits we see a moderate growth the consumption of food and beverages. Households do most of this spending as compared to hotels, restaurants and institutions. After the process of modernization that Spain has gone through, its famous street life has been inhibited. Although, specially during the summer season, people still live on the streets and cafe terraces are found full of people. Therefore, the summer season could be a good time for the beverage companies generating relatively higher profits for coke as well (Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong ;2006; np) Spanish production of technology specially aimed for the food and beverage industry is among the most competitive in the EU. The reason behind this technological advancement has been the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Change over time - Research Paper Example Moreover, the bus transportation has an official site, http://www.metrobus.df.gob.mx/ that offers tourist site for the City. Price are affordable and can be accessed online via http://www.metrobus.df.gob.mx/tarifa_pago.html. The transportation for Rooms and Accommodation can be done in the airport even before landing to Mexico City. Moreover, there are Green Taxis, Plane and Yellow Taxis that offer lucrative experience within the City. The buses and trains also offer best transportation experience around the City. There is also bus service from Airport to downtown, bike rental in city and On Foot. The Aztec population consisted of well-treated slaves, nobles and the commons. The most updated population estimate of the City of Mexico is about 8,864,000. Mexico City is the Capital of Mexico and rated the largest in Mexico. Mexico City has the highest number of the Spanish-speaking population entire world. The population density of the City is about 15,000 people per square mile. 19 percent of the population is considered indigenous communities in search of better economic situations. Also, many migrants found expatriates and immigrants dwell in the City. The primary language in Mexico is Spanish but due to the presence of indigenous communities in the city, Nahuatl, Mazahua, Zapoteco, Otomi and Mixteco languages are additionally spoken. The people that never migrated in or out the City of Mexico have about 70 percent of that population being under 15 years old. The remaining 30 percent is under the age of 15 years. Interestingly, only about 17 percent of the population over the age of 15 years has received higher education. About 41 percent of the non-migrant population is marked economically active, that is to say, a person was looking for a job or has one already. Further, about 25 percent of the emigrants is under the age of
Christian Counseling vs. Professional Psychotherapy - Essay Example This discussion highlights thatÃ advice is statement, which helps the person to make the right decision.Ã It is not as specific as counsel is and has the aim to lead the counseled individual to the right decision. Ã Advice provides several alternatives and individual decides which alternative is more acceptable to him/her.This paper outlines thatÃ wisdom is a different concept than counsel and advice.Ã It is not even the trait of the character, but rather the ability to make right decision based on the previous experience and the ability to reason, to consider different alternatives and to make the best decisions.Ã From Biblical perspective, wisdom comes with the acceptance of the Godly lifestyle and belief into God, while from the general perspective the person is regarded as wise if all of his decisions are logically and ethically right.Ã The concept of wisdom is introduced in the Bible from the first book:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. Ã She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate itÃ¢â¬ .Ã Wisdom is also the ability to be tolerant to others, the ability to listen to people and to accept their point of view, even if it is very different from the own. Being wise is not about knowing answers to all questions but rather about hearing others, analyzing the situations and finding the most appropriate solution, as the above verse supposes.Ã ... In this verse, the "counsel" has a different meaning - it indicates the way of life unbelievers have. Advice Advice is statement, which helps the person to make the right decision. It is not as specific as counsel is and has the aim to lead the counseled individual to the right decision. Advice provides several alternatives and individual decides which alternative is more acceptable to him/her (Butler 2003). "Listen now to me and I will give you some advice, and may God be with you. You must be the people's representative before God and bring their disputes to him" (Ex 18:19, Kohlenberger 2001). In this verse the advice is the recommendation but very specific one - the person is recommended to make the specific choice (to become the people's representative) and assume the specific responsibility (to bring the disputes of people to God). "Absalom said to Ahithophel, "Give us your advice. What should we do" (2 Sa 16:20, Kohlenberger 2001). Advice in this verse is self-explained: Absalom asks Ahithophel "what shall we do" - he is asking for the direction in life, the alternative course of act ion. Advice is asked for when someone is aware that some choice has to be done, but he is not able to decide which one is better. "When Hushai came to him, Absalom said, "Ahithophel has given this advice. Should we do what he says If not, give us your opinion" (2 Sa 17:6, Kohlenberger 2001). The meaning of advice in this verse is an alternative, possible course of action. It can be either accepted or rejected by the one who receives it. Bible leaves the right to make decision to the individual, who is the only one to decide what is better for him
Monday, September 23, 2019
Major Flaws of Justice System of America Depicted in The Last Line of Defense - Essay Example In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"The Last Line of DefenseÃ¢â¬ in The Atlantic, journalist, Raymond Bonner advocates the abolishment of death penalty in the criminal justice system of America; however, an overemphasis on the shortcomings of the system, one-sided debate, and biased tone deprive the reader of gaining comprehensive knowledge on the issue. He delineates how numerous underlying arbitrary elements influence criminal proceedings. Therefore, capital punishment can prove prejudicial to the accused. He appeals to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s logic. He quotes two real-life criminal cases in detail to demonstrate how the accused were charged guilty despite evidence pointing to the contrary. For this reason, the author advocates the abolishment of the capital regime as it can lead to the execution of innocent persons. Furthermore, this renders the death penalty unconstitutional and unethical. As evident, the use of logos through referring to real life cases assists the reader in deriving rational conclusions on the issue of the death penalty. Similarly, he establishes ethos and credibility by providing a comprehensive and detailed account of the cases. Persuasive arguments are based on all three techniques as evidenced in this article. Bonner begins the article by expressing concurrence with Diana Holt, an opponent of the death penalty. From the very start, he expresses his disapproval of the capital regime by describing Diana Holt as a Ã¢â¬Å"crusaderÃ¢â¬ . He goes on to portray her struggle against the death penalty as Ã¢â¬Å"heroic, long odds battleÃ¢â¬ . He deliberately depicts Diana Holt as a national hero in order to convince the readers of the rightfulness of his belief. This use of ethos is essential in building credibility and trustworthiness. Thus, the use of ethos in the title sentence unconsciously leads the readers to believe that the death penalty is undoubtedly unjust.
Economic Law - Essay Example The establishment of binding dispute settlement system by WTO in 1995 was one of its most plausible achievements. It was developed from GAAT model of settling disputes, the rules and procedures governing (DSU) understanding is that it contains developments that has led to change from a system based on economic power and politics to one based on rule of law (World Bank Group 1994). The outcome was more legality of the WTO that has been praised as benefiting specifically smaller countries, of which many are developing countries and least-developed countries. The shift 'is specifically beneficial for smaller countries, as without the rules and procedures of the DSU... they would not have the necessary bargaining power vis-a-vis the larger powers. 'Similarly, Weiler notes the advantages of the legalised WTO model, 'especially for the meek economically and politically unequal.' International agreements are not any useful if the rules stipulated cannot be complied with especially if the pa rties that are signatories to these agreements can not comply with the obligations as stipulated. An efficient and effective way of settling disputes often increase the members that are signatory to certain agreements commitments to complying and committing to those rules. Members of WTO established current dispute settlement system thus during the Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations shows their commitment to compliance by all Members with their obligations under the WTO Agreement. All members should and have to comply with these regulations as stipulated in writing. It is very important to settle disputes in time and through a structured manner (World Bank Group 1994). It helps to prevent the detrimental effects of unresolved international trade conflicts and to mitigate the imbalances between stronger and weaker players by having their disputes settled on the basis of rules rather than having power determine the outcome. Most people consider the WTO dispute settlement system to be one of the major results of the Uruguay Round (World Bank Group 1994). After the entry into force of the WTO Agreement in 1995, the dispute settlement system soon gained practical importance as Members frequently resorted to using this system. The details of the WTO Agreement have all the certain multilateral agreements. This is to say that, the WTO Agreement contains all agreements that have been considered in the Uruguay Round. References in this guide to the Ã¢â¬Å"WTO AgreementÃ¢â¬ in general, therefore, include the totality of these rules. However, the WTO Agreement itself, if taken in isolation from its annexes, is a short Agreement containing 16Ã Articles that set out the institutional framework of the (WTO) as an international organization (Shaffer and Melendez-Ortiz 2010). Specific references to the WTO Agreement (e.g. Ã¢â¬Å"Article XVI of the WTO AgreementÃ¢â¬ ) relate to these rules. World Bank reduces poverty in most countries in world by providing technical and financial help, ensures that people are able to generate their own incomes. They react quickly to the situation which affects any countries negatively. In addition World Bank help in improving health facilities and education especially in developing countries, this increases the leaving standard of the people. It assists in providing food to countries which are facing shortage of foods or high increase in food prices. World bank sustain growth in the future by investing in
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Information technology management - Essay Example gement refers to the discipline that comprises of resources and approaches by which information and technology resources are managed in respect to the priorities and needs identified (Clark, 2003). The resources relied on this process include data, software programs, hardware facilities like computers, information centres and facilities as well as the staff needed to maintain and oversee these systems and processes. This paper examines the concept of information and technology in organisations and the process that go in the research and creation of products that become market leaders, creating competitive advantages for them, while consolidating their market position. In addition, it focuses on apple Inc., a company that has a technological and innovation culture in the process of creating different mobile technologies and other electronic products that it sells. Apple inc., one of the chief companies in the technological industry is a multinational American company that is headquartered in California, USA (Grady, 2009). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s main objectives involve designing, developing and selling various kinds of consumer electronics, online services, personal computers and softwares among others. Among the products the company is known for include the iTunes Store, Apple store, the Mac and associated line of computers and the famous iPhone smartphone. Apple Inc. was established by three people, who were Ronald Wayne, Steve Wozniak and Steve jobs in 1976 with the main objective of developing and selling personal computers (Dormehl, 2012). Later in 1977, the company was officially incorporated under the name, Apple Computer, Inc. as the company changed and shifted its focus on consumer electronics; it changed its name to Apple Inc. in 2007. Among the many technologies that Apple Inc. has developed, the iPhone was the mobile technology that gave it success in the mobile industry as at the time of its launch. Actually, the iPhone is one of the smartphones that were
Critically evaluates the process of global harmonisation of financial reporting - Essay Example The information furnished by financial statements are aimed at different stakeholders like shareholders, management, regulatory bodies, suppliers, creditors, lenders, competitors, researchers, and the society at large. The International Financial Reporting Standards (also known as IFRS) was conceptualised and developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) in 2001. After one year of inception of IASB, the member states of European Union (EU) committed to adapt IFRS standards for all listed corporations under their jurisdiction. Such regulatory enforcements were due to come into effect from 2005. In 2003, the first IFRS was officially issued and by this time almost 19 countries were required to comply with global reporting standards. Nearly 70 countries have since then mandated IFRS for listed companies and further 23 countries have either allowed listed companies to voluntarily adopt IFRS or have mandated IFRS in listed entities (Ramanna and Sletten, 2009, pp.1-5). In the year 1985, Piper and Samuels, defined Ã¢â¬ËharmonisationÃ¢â¬â¢ as the process of bringing the current international accounting standards into some sort of agreement so that the financial statements of different entities from different nations are prepared as per a common set of principles of disclosures and measurements (Samuels and Piper, 1985). Harmonisation of financial reporting would increase the level of agreement related to presentation of information disclosure in practicing accounting standards between countries. The process of harmonisation will ensure development of a single global community irrespective of the diversity of stakeholders. The process will increase awareness among investors in capital markets and also develop a sense of responsibility in publicly traded firms regarding appropriate financial disclosures (Roberts et al., 1998). Harmonisation of financial reporting will facilitate undisputed international transactions by minimising exchange
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Surveys and Sampling Essay A. Identify the population and variables. Population is the whole group of Richmond buyers interested to buy a house. Variables are: location, price, bedrooms, bathrooms, sq.ft, and realtor B. Identify variables as categorical or quantitative. * Location is categorical variable * Price is quantitative variable * Bedrooms are quantitative variable * Baths are quantitative variable * Sq.Ft is quantitative variable * Realtor is categorical variable C. What are some possible population parameters of interest? The parameter in this case is the 182 listing in Richmond, some other options to be considered are: average house price ($310,381), house size, how many bedrooms and bathrooms, location of the house, who is it listed by and the city zone. D. What are some possible sample statistics that could be calculated from this data? It is not necessary to calculate the statistics, just identify them. Average price for houses based on the county location, average household income, preferable characteristic and taste of the house buyers E. What is the sampling frame for the sample? The sampling frame is randomly selected from the single-dwelling properties for sale in the Greater Richmond area shown on the website realestate.aol.com. F. What is the sampling design? Systematic Random sampling (SRS) G. Are there any sources of bias in the sample? Yes Ã¢â¬â based on the data we have the direction of the bias source is over charged. H. If we had decided to use a Stratified Sampling design, what would be appropriate strata? We can collect the sample by the process of dividing houses of the population in Richmond area into homogeneous subgroups before sampling then select a random selection within each stratum then combine the result. I. Are there other factors not shown in the data set that may affect the price of a house? Land size, school zone, amenities, house features (garage, basement, pool, etc..)
Right to education in India Essay Abstract Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. (Article 26 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights). This UN recommendation has been reinforced in the provisions of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act (2009), which came into effect in India on 1 April 2010, enshrining in law for the first time the rights of all Indian children aged between six and fourteen years to free and compulsory elementary education regardless of caste, class, gender, etc. After 62 year of independence, The Union of India has made free and compulsory education a fundamental right for every child between the age of 6to 14. Now India has joined the group of those countries who provide for constitutional guarantee to free and compulsory education. The enforcement of this right is the joint responsibility of the centre and the state with even the local bodies playing their role in its functioning. The present paper shares the historical perspective, salient features, critical analysis of the act, the problems ahead and suggests ways to overcome them. IndexÃ Content Page number Introduction 4 Historical perspective 5 Salient features 6 Criticism 7 Challenges ahead 9 Suggestions 11 Conclusion 13 References 14 Introduction Education is a fundamental human right and essential for the exercise of all other human rights. It promotes individual freedom and empowerment and yields important development benefits. Yet millions of children and adults remain deprived of educational opportunities, many as a result of poverty. Normative instruments of the United Nations and UNESCO lay down international legal obligations for the right to education. These instruments promote and develop the right of every person to enjoy access to education of good quality, without discrimination or exclusion. These instruments bear witness to the great importance that Member States and the international community attach to normative action for realizing the right to education. It is for governments to fulfill their obligations both legal and political in regard to providing education for all of good quality and to implement and monitor more effectively education strategies. Education is a powerful tool by which economically and socially marginalized adults and children can lift themselves out of poverty and participate fully as citizens. Education system was in a huge problem right after at the time of independence. It was under Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpai that educatory reforms were made. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was a massive step with what followed by mid day meal. Objective: 1. To determine the problems in the right of children to free and compulsory education act, 2009. 2. To find out the problems in present and future after the amendment. 3. To find out effective solutions for the same. Historical perspective At the time of Independence, India inherited an educational system which was not only quantitatively small but was also characterized by striking gender and regional disparities. Only one child out of three had been enrolled in primary school. Thus challenge was to provide elementary education to all its children within a stipulated period of time. Accordingly, universal education for all children in the 6-14 age groups became a constitutional provision by Article 45 of the Constitution. Special care of the economic and educational interests of the under privileged sections of the population also became a constitutional obligation. But these constitutional provisions still remain unfulfilled. Governments commitment to ensure elementary education for all children aged 6-14 years was later seen in its ambitious program named Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Free and compulsory elementary education was made a fundamental right under Article 21A of the Constitution in December 2002 by the 86th Amendment. In bringing this into action, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill was drafted in 2005. This was revised and became an Act in August 2009, but was enforced on 1st April 2010. The Right to Education Act will benefit about one crore out-of- school children and a large number of drop-out children. As per an estimate, out of 22 crore children in the 6-14 years age group in the country, 4. 6 percent children have no enrolment in any school. Salient Features The Right to Education Act is a detailed and comprehensive piece of legislation which includes provisions related to schools, teachers, curriculum, evaluation, access and specific division of duties and responsibilities of all concerned. Main features of the Act are as under: 1. Every child from 6 to 14 years of age shall have the right to free and compulsory education in a neighborhood school till completion of elementary education 2. Private schools shall provide 25 percent reservation for weaker sections and economically disadvantaged groups in the admission. 3. All schools except government schools are required to meet all specified norms and standards within three years to avoid cancellation of their recognition. 4. The act calls for a fixed pupil-teacher ratio, i. e. 30:1 5. The act mandates improvement in quality of education 6. Financial burden shall be shared between Central and State Governments Criticism 1. It is stated in section 3(1) that every child of the age of six to fourteen years shall have the right to free and compulsory education in a neighborhood school till completion of elementary education. Criticism: right and compulsory are two contradictory terms and thus it should be stated in duties of a parent and guardians to make sure their children get their right just like in China in their article 46 amended in 2006, although it has its presence in section 10 but there is no punishment stated on failure to do so. The age for education is also not justified. There should also be free education for the youth and adults who are uneducated and there also should be adequate stress levied upon pre schooling as a child might not be able to cope with the intellectual needs required in standard one without it. 2. It is stated in section 6 that for carrying out the provisions of this Act, the appropriate Government and the local authority shall establish, within such area or limits of neighborhood, as may be prescribed, a school, where it is not so established, within a period of three years from the commencement of this Act. Criticism: The period for the following is far too long as a school as per government norms must have a huge open space and different classrooms for each year with a strength not exceeding 30 students. This can be reached in one year and so a time limit of 18 months wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been adequate rather than delaying it more by another year and a half. 3. It is stated in section 8 (a) that provide free and compulsory elementary education to every child Provided that where a child is admitted by his or her parents or guardian, as the case may be, in a school other than a school established, owned, controlled or substantially financed by funds provided directly or indirectly by the appropriate Government or a local authority, such child or his or her parents or guardian, as the case maybe, shall not be entitled to make a claim of reimbursement of expenditure incurred on elementary education of the child in such other school. And in section 18 No school established, owned or controlled by the appropriate Government or a local authority shall, after the commencement of this Act, be established or function, without obtaining a certificate of recognition from such authority, by making an application in such form and manner, as may be prescribed. Criticism: trust bodies and private tutoring as been availed by our former prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, both are discouraged. 4. It is stated in section 16 that No child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class or expelled from school till the completion of elementary education. Criticism: This may result in lack of seriousness for education and in the end result in failure after elementary education. 5. It is stated in section 17(1) No child shall be subjected to physical or mental harassment. And in 17(2) whoever contravenes the provisions of subsection (1) shall be liable to disciplinary action under the service rules applicable to such person. Criticism: the remote areas where the adults and youth are un-educated may face problems in putting forward a case for the same rather a special committee under education board must look into such issue. Challenges ahead 1. State Governments Apathy: Lack of Promptness / Commitment Poor economic conditions of the States 2. Availability of Infrastructure Facilities: Establishment of Primary Schools within one kilometer and upper Primary Schools within three kilometer distance. Well equipped classrooms, library, laboratory, play ground, drinking water and toilet facilities 3. Availability of Teachers and Required Pupil-Teacher Ratio: Five lacks new teachers are to be recruited and 5 lacks new classrooms are to be constructed to meet the required 30: 1 pupil teacher ratio. There are seven lacks teachers in the recognized 13 lacks primary schools. Out of these, three lacks teachers are either untrained or under-training. In many states large numbers of teachers are para-teachers and many of them are untrained. As per a recent report by NUEPA, Bihar tops amongst the states having poor pupil-teacher ratio and Uttar Pradesh comes at second place. In about 35 percent primary schools in Uttar Pradesh, pupil teacher ratio is 60:1. Fifty one percent primary schools in Uttar Pradesh are having three or less number of teachers. Out of these, 38 percent are para-teachers. In the present circumstances, to maintain pupil-teacher ratio as per the Act, appears a distant dream. 4. Quality of Education: Quality of education depends upon the quality of teachers. Teachers selection and training procedure and their conditions of work need a substantial improvement. Teachers accountability to the pupils, their parents, and the community and to their own profession needs to be determined. 5. Twenty Five Percent Reservation of Seats in Private Schools: What will be the identification, selection and verification of economically weaker and disadvantaged children? Would they be selected from the neighborhood or from the entire village/town/city? How the whole process will be monitored by the government? Suggestions In the light of the challenges discussed earlier, following are some suggestions which may be helpful to meet the challenges: 1. The state governments are required to show promptness for the implementation of the RTE Act. The states who have not yet released any notification regarding the Act must do it without any further delay. The Central Government should impose a time limit to release funds to the states. If any state government still shows apathy to release notification, then no funds should be released by the Centre to that state for the establishment of new schools. State governments should show full commitment for the implementation of the Act. 2. Primary schools with all minimum required infrastructure facilities should be established in the neglected areas on priority basis. Central government should release budget of its share to the states at the earliest. Facilities in the existing government schools should be expanded. To avoid the closure of unrecognized private schools for not fulfilling the prescribed recognition standards within three years, these schools must be helped to improve their facilities by resource support and providing linkages with financial institutions. To meet budgetary constraints, stress must be given on cost effectiveness and accountability at every level. 3. To meet the increasing demand of qualified and trained full time teachers, the teachers in required number must be recruited at the earliest. Pupil-teacher ratio must be maintained as per requirement. As more and more children move into the primary school age group, it becomes needful to build more and more schools and recruit more teachers for sustained improvement in the quality of education. 4. Primary schools need to be made aware of the provisions made for 25 percent reservation of seats for the economically and socially weaker and disadvantaged children and the role of school managing committees in this regard. The identification, selection and verification procedure of such children should be well defined and well informed. It should also be notified that how the whole process will be monitored. 5. There is need to streamline educational administration. The pace of implementation of the Act can become faster if bottlenecks in administration are removed. Altogether, it is essential to adopt an integrated approach and establish linkages between education and other related areas such as child care, nutrition and health. Each state should formulate a State Program of Action and each district and school should formulate a Program of Action of its own by taking into account the State Program of Action. 6. Teachers performance is the most crucial input in the field of education. Well qualified and highly motivated teachers are the key to effective implementation of the curriculum. They give impetus to the teaching-learning process. Top priority, therefore, should be fixed for the improvement in the quality and content of teacher education program 7. While the Central and State Governments have their full share of responsibilities, it is community participation and involvement of NGOs which will make marked difference in meeting the challenge of implementing Right to Education Act. 8. To achieve the goals of Free and Compulsory Elementary Education, it is of upmost importance to develop curricula that is responsive to changing needs and facilitates the incorporation and integration of new content areas related to science, technology, population and the environment. Conclusion: In order to meet the challenges and surmount the hurdles that stand in the way of implementing Right to Education Act, it is needful to concentrate all efforts with full dedication and commitment. Not only the central and state governments but the nation as a whole should take responsibility in this regard. Community participation and support can make marked difference in achieving this goal. There exists a need for greater coordination amongst different agencies and functionaries involved in this task. To overcome population pressures and budgetary constraints, cost effectiveness and accountability must be ascertained at every level. Efforts should be focused on qualitative improvement of the whole program. References The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (RTE Act, 2009). Education and National Development, Report of the Education Commission (1964-66), NCERT, New Delhi, 1971. Challenges of EducationÃ¢â¬âa policy perspective, Ministry of Education, Govt. of India, New Delhi, August 1985. National Policy on Education Ã¢â¬â 1986, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India, Dept. of Education, New Delhi, May, 1986. Towards an Enlightened and Humane Society, Report of the Committee for Review of National Policy on Education 1986, Final Report, 26th Dec. 1990. National Policy on EducationÃ¢â¬â1986 (With Modifications undertaken in 1992), Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Education, New Delhi, 1992. National Policy on Education 1986, Programme of Action, 1992, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Education, Govt. of India, 1993. Education for All Ã¢â¬â The Indian Scene, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India, Dec. 1993. Sixth All India Educational Survey, Selected Statistics, NCERT, New Delhi, 1998. Seventh All India School Education Survey, Provisional Statistics, N. C. E. R. T. , New Delhi, Sep. 30, 2002. National Curriculum Framework, 2005, N. C. E. R. T. , New Delhi. National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, N. C. T. E. , New Delhi, 2009Ã¢â¬â10. The gazette of extraordinary India http://www. unesco. org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/right-to-education/.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Reflecting on Teacher Training Course Reflective Assignment 2.3 This narrative account is based on my reflective journey which began in September when I started this teacher training course. It highlights issues that were encountered from the beginning, middle and end of this life changing career path. It is a very challenging course that requires dedication, focus, planning, time management and continuing professional development. Achieving most of these goals requires professional to reflect on their practice which helps in identifying development needs. Moon (2004) defines reflection as a form of thinking or mental processing used to achieve an intended result. This is supported by Dewey (1934)Ã¢â¬â¢s theory of reflective practice that aims to reach a conclusion. This purpose of this practice is to reach a common ground within professionals. During my initial stages of the course I had negative views about reflection as I was not comfortable with something that would unravel my inner beliefs. Reflection can be seen as self-destructive due to its nature of moving a person from his comfortable zone into the unknown situation. Hillier (2005 p17) states; Ã¢â¬Ëreflective practice actively challenges the comfortable focusing on professionals to be honest with themselvesÃ¢â¬â¢. As an initial reaction of someone who had not taught a group of adults before I was nervous to conduct the micro teach. However constructive feedback was provided by both peers and the tutor and one of the main points which I picked up from the feedback was communication skills improvement in particular Ã¢â¬Ëthe voice projectionÃ¢â¬â¢ was low.Re-evaluating the role of the teacher as an Ã¢â¬ËinstructorÃ¢â¬â¢ allowed me to gain an understanding of the importance of effective communication in a classroom environment. One of the adjustments used to the enhance the communication skill was to try and sit in the back of the classroom to allow me to raise my voice when speaking to the group. As the course progressed I was placed within Seashell an environment where there is verbal and non-verbal communication. This was a challenge to my low skills as some students required me to speak clearly and slowly in a manner they can understand supported with symbols and pictures and started to engage myself in sign-along sessions. Communication is a two way process that requires skills from both the listener and the talker.Berlo (1960). During this course and my previous studies I have gained some transferable skills which can be used on daily basis. These include using fractions or percentages to calculate spending as well as the use of vocabulary when communicating within community. Developing these skills is essential in independent living which our learners are aiming to achieve. Pictures of money pictures and symbols of items such as cup of tea or cake are used. The use of work schedules allows learners to read through task before engaging in it. The current government requires all aspiring teachers to pass the skills test in numeracy and literacy before obtaining qualified teachers status (QTS) according to the Department of Education.(DEFS 2014). These functional skills will need to be embedded as evidence in all sessions as way of improving learner participation in these areas that have become important aspect of employability skill. All current teacher trainees are required to be aware of the new professional values and standards that are provided by the lifelong learning sector (LLUK 2007) 3.1 SchÃ ¶n (1983) suggests that professionals should reflect in situations that are relatively unpredictable. Teaching learners with severe disabilities can be complex due to multiple disabilities. The key to deliver effective lessons to most these learners lay with the understanding of these multiple disabilities. Organisations such as the Institute for learning (IFL) provide for resources to trainee teachers in different specialist areas. It also provides for ongoing support to all professionals using latest research related to that particular area.Enganging in personal and professional development opportunities within a specialist area requires linking theory to practice. To keep myself updated with latest research and theories I need to constantly visit websites of specialist organisations such as The National Autistic Society and The Epilepsy Society. The information provided on these sites is of vital importance and valid because researches carried out involves the learner. Contributions from medical experts and educational researchers who work closely with these organisations help us to make informed decisions with regards to classroom practice. 3.2 Continuing personal and professional development within severe learning disabilities will enhance my own skills as a teacher. Sharing of good practice with other professionals allows us to develop best methods that meet learner needs. A number of strategies are in use that has been proved to work within various specialist areas. Teaching strategies, resources, and assessment methods that promote inclusiveness are required during the professional practice. Reflective practice aims to enhance personal achievements however when combined with professional practice it increases the competence within professionals. To achieve good quality learning within education, I needed to reflect as part of the learning process. The process allowed me to review my actions by looking into my evaluations to find out what went well and what needs to be developed. Results from these reviews can be used to influence future practice. It also provided me with the opportunity to explore a variety of reflective activities within my specialist area. Reflective language should be clearly explained to leaners at the beginning of their career journey to allow them to compile their reflective journals right at the beginning of the course. It is now considered to be an important aspect of employability within the teaching professionals. Most educational settings within lifelong learning sector are now free standing as business entities that are looking to employ people who have passion and willingness to help the development of learner and organisational progress. Most of these educational providers are partly funded by the government which in turn look at how the provider is meeting learner needs. Becker (1970) cited in Robson (2005 p11) describes professionalism as a Ã¢â¬Ëcollective symbol of ideas that have a substantial agreementÃ¢â¬â¢. It is this set of ideas that all professionals try to follow using different methods but coming to the same conclusions as to what should professional should present 3.3 Schon (1934) suggests reflection Ã¢â¬Ëon actionÃ¢â¬â¢ and reflection in actionÃ¢â¬â¢ this theory seems to work well for me during the placement due to unpredictable actions that may arise within our classroom environment according to Miettinen (2010). Recording of self-evaluations at the end of every lesson allowed me analyse and respond to events afterwards. This can be effective where time is limited during the lesson to note down experience. Self-evaluations are best recorded at the earliest stage when itÃ¢â¬â¢s still fresh in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Writing down these events can help us come to a decision on which method is best and what developments can be made. It could be said that reflection forms the basis for our understanding which in turn influences future decision. The information gathered from self-evaluations or observations with regards to what happens in the classroom will need to be analysed at a later stage and act upon it.As part of reflection two peer observations were carried out that allowing me to see how others perform compared to my own teaching practice. I realised that sharing of experiences with other professionals provides for the opportunity for me to learn from others and vice versa. 4.1 Professional reflective practice in teaching could be summarised as a pause taken by the teacher during a session to critically analyse his/her actions according to Larrivee (2000). This is not limited to my learning but also consists of all key elements of professional practice. A number of methods can be used to improve personal and professional development. Tummons (2007) points out that professional reflective practice cycle includes experience, reflection, professional practice and action plans. Reflecting on own experience and putting action plans helps learner in developing a platform. Gibbs (1988) encourages the use of a six stage questioning technique that includes feelings, description, evaluations, analysis, conclusion and action plan. This theory can be closely linked to Kolb (1984)Ã¢â¬â¢s four stage that includes doing the task, reflect on it, researching upon it and planning for the next stage.is not much difference from the Analysing these events require us to make a note of these events either through journal, diary, observation sheets, self-evaluations, student and peer feedbacks. The results obtained from these recordings will be used in combination with theories to improve own practice. Due to the varied nature of these strategies the results obtained can vary depending with the how the information used in the reflection was gathered. A reflective journal can be used to record all of events of concerns just after the lesson. This may include theories, political ideologies, research notes, and personal comments. Thorpe (2004) suggests that journals and diaries be maintained through-out the course or for a long period of time to allow consistency. Observations were conducted through-out the placement period with my mentor in classroom providing guidance on the sport. Where official observations were carried records were kept which I then used to improve my next lesson. In our placement due to hearing impairments photos that include the teacher and the learner could be used as evidence. Analysing my own personal photos working with learners, in my own time allowed me to view my practice in a different way. Another easier way of using reflective practice is story telling with peers. Self-evaluation of own practice and behaviours that are closely linked to the practice helps us to understand what works best. Taking a pause during these sessions helped me to drastically change my practice and began to see learners asking questions freely. References Beard, C. (2010) The Experiential Learning Toolkit: Blending Practice with Business Economics [Available] Berlo, D,K. (1960) The process of communication: An introduction to theory and practice. British Council (2011) [available] www.teachingenglish.org.uk (accessed 10/05/14) Dewey, J. (1934) The Need for a Philosophy of Education DFES (2014) [available] http://www.education.gov.uk/sta/professional/statistics (accessed 10/05/14) Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Institute for Learning (2014) [available] www.ifl.ac.uk (accessed 04/03/14) Lifelong Learning UK (2007) [available] www.lifelonglearninguk.org Moon, J,A. (2004).Ã Reflection and employability. Vol. 4. LTSN Generic Centre, Moon, J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: Theory and Practice, Routledge/Falmer Miettinen, R.(2010). The concept of experiential learning and John Deweys theory of reflective thought and action.International Journal of Lifelong Education [available] http://www.tandfonline.com (accessed 10/05/14) Smith, Karen, et al. (2007): The challenges of reflection: students learning from work placements Innovations in Education and teaching International. The National Autistic Society (2014) [available] http://www.autism.org.uk/working-with.aspx (accessed 10/05/14) The Epilepsy Society (2014) [available] http://www.epilepsysociety.org.uk/professionals (accessed 04/04/14) Tummons, J. (2008): Assessment and the literacy practices of trainee PCET teachers. International Journal of Educational Research Larrivee, B. (2000): Transforming teaching practice: Becoming the critically reflective teacher. Reflective Practice. Thorpe, K. (2004): Reflective learning journals: From concept to practice. Reflective practice Robson, J. (2005).Ã Teacher professionalism in further and higher education: challenges to culture and practice. Routledge, Malthouse, R. (2009):Ã Reflective practice in the lifelong learning sector. SAGE, Page | 1
Bicycle Thieves And Italian Neo Realism Film Studies Essay It is evident that Italian Neorealism and the life of post-war shaped the film Bicycle Thieves (1948). However, with much debate, one can argue that the sentimental nature of the film overwhelms the films potential to make a forceful political statement. With reference to important scenes from the film, Italian neorealist principles and the usage of sentiment; one can justifiably claim that the forceful political statement is not overwhelmed by sentiment, and in fact enhances the message the film aims to give off. Neorealism was an influential and significant movement in film history, which took place in Italy at the ending of World War II. Italy moved from fascism and dictatorship, whereby much was revolved around a single-party state seen in World War I, to an equal and democratic society. This change in society brought about characteristics and principles which became noticeable in cinema during this time period. These principles not only molded the film Bicycle Thieves, but were used to bring about a message to the audience. The filmmakers and directors believed they had an ethical responsibility to use cinema to promote the social change that had just occurred post the war. Ideally, it wasnt so much about the storyline of the film, but more about making the public aware of the difficulties that working people had to face. Here we see a Marxist approach on the rebuilding of Italy whereby unlike the mythology of Classic Hollywood, no single person can change the world and the ultimate society would be a classless society. Neorealisms origin of strength lies in the documentary excellence which is used to portray the realism of the story. One might speculate what Bicycle Thieves would be like in colour, however the black and white aspect highlights the tone of the film being a bleak, depressing emotion contrary to the usage of colour which would highlight liveliness and energy and go against the tone of the film. Thus, clearly showing that the sentiment brings about the tone of the film which enhances the message of presenting the gloomy conditions of poverty in post-war Italy. The reconstituted reportage, based on daily life and events, also adds more truth to the film and is not the making of a documentary but rather shown and seen in a documentary-type way and aids to make available the focus of temporary altering and moving from one area or subject to another. Truth is an important principle of neorealism, as truth brings realism. This can be seen through the truth of the characters, lighting, location, dÃ ©cor, camera shots, camera angles and editing. This not only brings about authenticity but also creates a much stronger message for the audience. In Bicycle Thieves, there is a correlation between truth and sentiment, and truth and the political statement Which are justifiably both used in this film without over powering one another in order to positively enhance the films message. Inevitably, in order for a director to get an actual event (post-war) understood by his audience truth and realism is the most effective approach. Neorealism focuses on the characters and themes without much focus on the plot itself as the plot is seen to warp the truth about people. Thus, the film wouldve not only been boring if there was no sentiment (due to there not being enough material if there was no storyline about characters), but to know and understand a situation, one must be put in a position where you have the opportunity of learning a great deal about the faith and frustrations of a human being. Equally, a boring film is a failed film. Through this, neorealists are able to portray truth to a greater extend through bringing about simplicity yet a means of understanding the real life; a main appeal in films even today. The storyline being as simple as the search for a bicycle doesnt take the political statement too far away from the message. Likewise, the actual characters in the film are everyday normal people. The workman was found in the factory, the child was wondering around the streets and the wife was a writer. This is known as Typage whereby there is no star system which immediately creates a far more realistic/truth approach and feel. Similarly, the locations and dÃ ©cor are real and not built-up or made-up, the lighting is natural which attempts to present reality as it is, the editing is invincible which enhances truth and the camera is free which is unrestricted and brings about a far more convincing viewing. With the storyline of the characters and the truth which is by principle brought about, I fully agree that it brings about sentiment. However, It puts you (the audience) in a far more heart-felt and understanding position which I believe brings about the political statement in a far more expressive way, rather than a theoretical and cold approach. And as some agree, its not even sentimental its just painful. (REFERENCE 6) Instead of a cold theoretical approach, we are introduced to a family who are ordinary and by no means are glamorous heros which is commonly seen in Classical Hollywood. Quite frankly, if we werent introduced to characters and the sentiment they bring, which play a role in this film, I personally dont think much of a political statement would be made as one needs interest to grasp a statement. The character of Ricci is the focus of the film, however we are not interested in him but rather what will happen next in the films sequence of events. And even though characters bring about sentiment and the viewer starts becoming attached to the role the characters plays, in Bicycle Thieves, Bruno the son unsentimentally still criticizes his father. In response to the representation of the political statement made in this film, we are clearly able to see this in noticeable scenes in the film. In the first scene, the camera follows Ricci from the unemployment gathering to his wife where the housing project is in the background, which is fully exhibited to the viewer showing the bleak conditions. We see the men and woman arguing about employment and shortage of water. This emphasis on long and medium shots which appeals to the truth in the film enhances the political message due to the events getting exhibited on a whole Whereas close up would bring more sentiment. Long and medium shots show the actor loosely framed in his environment and allow the viewer opportunity to look around in that environment with the added enhancement of the shots taken at eye level. As well as minimized jumps and shifts through editing to bring more real life to the cinema audience. Thus we see here that sentiment is not overwhelming the political statement, but rather the political statement is actually taking dominance in the shots. Of course the neorealist did move in for close-ups every now and then which in effect is therefore very strong and still strings along the story of the characters and the central object, which is needed to (as mentioned earlier) keep the audience interested and not bored. The central object is the bicycle. They are everywhere and yet precious, and the frailty of the Ricci familys position is enforced when Antonios bicycle is stolen. Here, the object brings sentiment to enforce the political statement, and what I find even more interesting is how the title changed from Bicycle Thief to Bicycle Thieves as ultimately it becomes a vicious cycle of survival as one has to steal their own bicycle back from the thief, therefore becoming a thief resulting in thieves. This therefore constitutes to the message of the film, for the continuous struggle of the haves and have-nots. Through the character of Antonio, It is the hope that drives him and allows him to move on in his quest to find his stolen bicycle. Although the directors glumness drives the plot, it is ultimately the clash with human optimism which gives the film affective power and without the human sentiment one can argue that the film would not produce affective power. If we look at three scenes, we are able to see how sentiment brings power to the political statement. In one scene we see Antonio and Maria trade in their bed linen. The camera moves away from them and we see the heaps of bed-linen behind the counter, a tacit bleak reminder of the extensive nature of unemployment while recognizing its effect on the heart of families household lives. Again we see how realistic the lighting is and the framing is loose to incorporate the environmental conditions to promote the political message. In another scene we see Ricci reporting his bicycle stolen and is directed by the policeman to the piles of alike reported cases. His account and circumstances are not singular, and we see here how it is not only this family that is going through this but also a lot of people. Thus portraying the political message that goes beyond this familys personal sentiment. Here we are also shown how humanitarianism prohibited Ricci from pressing official charges anti the thief, and the same moral fiber that spared him after he was caught stealing a bicycle. After seeing Bruno in tears, the sufferer understood Riccis condition and let him go. Such a film was essential in Italy as through this family we have the opportunity of being a bystander to the brutality of a civil war between fascists and its on going of killing and reprisals through seeing how this effects one, and how not only effecting this family but many others. Italy in post-war was in need of healing and compassion even at the cost of a perceived injustice. (Paul Baxa, 2011) Healing does not come from the government and leaders of the country, but come from within the everyday man on the streets you and me. Thus, from the Riccis, those being affected by the war and living within such conditions as well as the audience viewing this film who can in many ways relate. In another scene, arguably the most sentimental scene yet what I believe portrays the political message more powerfully than any other- we see the father and sons relationship come to a mend. It is understood with looking into the Italian family lifestyle, that the father and sons relationship is by far the strongest and most special. Little Brunos appearance when taking his fathers hand in the last scene is merely a realistic point of life and is a means of facing life with your father an important part in Italian culture. With Bruno being the witness of the tragedy and finally coming to realize his father is not a hero after all (contrary to Classic Hollywood), much like the audience being a witness too, this scene gives off a sense of aggravation, humiliation, paradox and most of all acceptance to survival. These sentimental feelings therefore expresses the political statement as this ending of when the father and son take hands, expresses manhood and the hardship and survival one needs to go through with still looking for a sense of acceptance. Bicycle Thieves therefore inevitably portrayed the political statement through expressing the social conditions without expressing solutions. One might argue that this is a downfall, however at this moment in time solutions were not theoretical and if healing was going to occur it was going to have to come from the people. Thus, this film is inevitably awareness that needs to be found in each individual, which will create its own solution. Much like the theme and characters inevitably creating a plot on its own in Neorealism. The neorealist approach doesnt have an inbuilt political meaning solution, as the most widespread attribute of neorealism is; on location shooting and the feeling of truth. (REFERENCE) Exactly what Bicycle Thieves so effectively does. One must also remember when viewing this film in the 21st century that twenty-five percent of the Italian workforce was unemployed at the time and if you were employed, getting to work was with the use of a bicycle. The object of the bicycle thus symbolized survival. In conclusion, one can therefore justifiably argue that the sentimental nature of Bicycle Thieves does not overwhelm the political statement but essentially enhances it. If the political statement made in the film was to feed off a means of a solution, and the solution could only be found in the common individual like the Riccis family then one needs to understand the individuals situation as well as have an opportunity to walk in their shoes. Through sentiment that is not overly used in this film, one can see the hardship for survival through the story of these characters in order to become aware, as well as stay intrigued. Without focalizing power of the central character but rather the political statement through the characters, this film uses The death of one man is a tragedy, the death of millions is a statistic. (Joseph Stalin, 1953) to its advantage by effectively showing the tragedy of individuals with indication to the masses statistic.