Saturday, August 31, 2019
In 2001, Sony Ericsson is established by the Japanese company Sony (a consumer electronics corporation) as a fifty-fifty joint venture with the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson (a mobile communications infrastructure and systems business) which offers mobile phones, accessories and applications. Before the merger, its provides expertise in mobile communication, after the merger, its provide both the consumer electronics and content expertise. In 2011, Sony Ericsson changes their global strategy by focusing more on high end smartphones. At the same times, Sony Ericsson will focus on their key markets, which is including the U.S., Russia, China and Germany. The transaction gives Sony focus on high end smartphones product includes their accessories and application that will lead to profitability and the growth of its business. However, the company facing new challenges in this dynamic changing environment, aggressive competition will affect the global market share of the company and it revenue. In 2012, Sony Ericsson becomes an end when SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s announcement that it will acquired 50 percent stake in Sony Ericsson, changed its name to Sony Mobile Communications AB (SMEC) let Sony Ericsson becomes an affiliated company of Sony Corporation (Sony). Sony is a multinational corporation, one of the most leading brand and its functions as designing, manufacturing, marketing mobiles phones and its accessories. With the announcement of acquisition, it will be a brand new start for Sony Ericsson to embark within the Sony family, expanded their marketing activities. Sony Ericsson use outsourcing for the customer interaction centre is another global strategy. This customer interaction centre is established to solve and meet all customer requirements and their problems, and at the same time reducing their cost for expansion.
For decades economic theories have relied heavily on the effectiveness of material incentives (Fehr & Gachter, 2001). According to the traditional exchange theory all people are exclusively motivated by their own material self-interest. It predicts that the introduction of a penalty will reduce the occurrence of the behavior that is subject to the fine. On the other hand it states that introducing a material incentive will lead to an increase of the behavior related to the bonus. Based on economic theory, incentives have become increasingly popular and are used to increase certain behaviors in various fields including environmental policy (Andersen & Sprenger, 2000; Barde & Smith, 1997; Baumol & Oates, 1988; Kahn, 1995; all cited in ThOgersen, 2003), household surveys (Singer, 2002) and education policy (Fryer, 2011). On the other side, penalties have been used to reduce free-riding (Feldman, Papadimitriou, Chuang, & Stoica, 2006), and crimes (Akerlof & Dickens, 1982). There is much evidence that supports the basic premise of economics that incentives are effective (Gibbons, 1997; Prendergast, 1999; Lazear, 2000; all cited in Benabou & Tirole, 2004). However, a large body of literature in psychology has shown that explicit incentives lead to decreased motivation and reduced performance in the long run (Deci & Ryan, 1985; as cited in Benabou & Tirole, 2004). Titmuss (1970, as cited in Benabou & Tirole, 2004) was the first who claimed that people might adopt a Ã¢â¬Ëmarket mentalityÃ¢â¬â¢ when they are exposed to explicit economic incentives. He found that paying blood donors for donating blood could actually reduce supply. In the beginning there was little hard evidence that social preferences affected individual behavior, but empirical and theoretical advances over the past decades provide the basis for more support. For example, Gneezy and Rustichini (2000a) found that introducing a monetary fine for late-coming parents in day-care centers led to a significant increase in late-coming. There was no reduction in late-coming after the fine was removed. Also Fryer (2011) didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find evidence that providing financial incentives to teachers to increase student performance had any effect. Partly because of these findings, terms as trust, reciprocity, gift exchange and fairness have appeared in the empirical study and modeling of principal-agent relationships (Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). This highlights the importance of the influence that social preferences have on incentives. Based on the contradictions mentioned above I conclude that a more thorough analysis is needed in order to understand the influence of incentives on behavior. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll focus on the interplay between incentives and social preferences and how this affects behavior. In this paper I will review several mechanisms that can explain how incentives can be less effective than economic theories predict and how they can even have counterproductive effects. Furthermore I will indicate the implications of the (non-)effectiveness of incentives for economic policy. Overview of past research According to the definition of Bowles and Polania-Reyes (2012), social preferences refer to Ã¢â¬Å"motives such as altruism, reciprocity, intrinsic pleasure in helping others, inequity aversion, ethical commitments and other motives that induce people to help others more than would an own-material-payoff maximizing individualÃ¢â¬ (p. 4). Fehr and Fischbacher (2002) have indicated the most important types of preferences that have been uncovered by the literature. I will shortly review them below. The first important type of social preference is the preference for reciprocal fairness or reciprocity. An individual is reciprocal when he responds kindly to actions that are perceived as kind, and when he responds hostile to actions that are perceived as hostile. Whether some action is perceived as hostile of kind depends on the unfairness or fairness of the intention and on the consequences that are associated with the action. A second social preference type is inequity aversion. According to Fehr and Schmidt (1999; as cited in Fehr & Fischbacher, 2002) Ã¢â¬Å"inequity averse persons want to achieve an equitable distribution of material resourcesÃ¢â¬ (p. C3). Inequity averse persons show altruistic behavior if the other personsÃ¢â¬â¢ payoffs are below an equitable level. However, if the other personsÃ¢â¬â¢ payoffs are exceeding the equitable level an inequity averse person want to decrease the other personsÃ¢â¬â¢ payoffs. There are a lot of similarities in the behavior of reciprocal and inequity averse individuals, since both concepts depend in some way on the perception of fairness. Pure altruism is the third type of social preference, which is very different from the former two. Altruism can be seen as an unconditional form of kindness (Fehr & Fischbacher, 2002), as an altruistic person would never take an action that decreases another personÃ¢â¬â¢s payoff. The problem with pure altruism is that it cannot explain conditional cooperation, that is, people want to increase their voluntary cooperation in response to cooperation of others. The last social preference type that Fehr and Fischbacher (2002) mentioned is envious or spiteful preferences. An envious or spiteful person always values the payoff of other agents negatively. Therefore the envious person is willing to decrease the other agentÃ¢â¬â¢s payoff even if it brings along a personal cost to himself. This happens irrespective of fair or unfair behavior of the other agent and irrespective of the pay-off distribution (Fehr & Fischbacher, 2002). However, spitefulness canÃ¢â¬â¢t explain why it is that the same individuals sometimes are willing to help others at a personal cost, while sometimes they harm other people. Over the past decades, many studies have confirmed that a significant fraction of individuals engage in reciprocal or altruistic behaviors (Buraschi & Cornelli, 2002; as cited in Benabou & Tirole, 2004; Fehr & Gachter, 2000). Thus, many individuals do not only care about the material resources allocated to them, but also care about material resources allocated to other relevant agents. To give an overview of the incentive effects on preferences, two distinctions are made: the nature and the causes of incentives (Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). Concerning the nature of incentives, people often respond to the mere presence of incentives, rather than to their extent (Gneezy, 2003; as cited in Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). However, the extent of an incentive may also play a role. Therefore the effects of incentives on social preferences can be either categorical or marginal or a combination of the two. Bowles and Polania-Reyes (2012) also make a distinction between 2 causes of incentive effects on preferences. First, incentives can affect the environment in which preferences are learned. When this happens, the preferences are referred to as endogenous preferences. Second, the extent or presence of incentives affect the behavioral salience of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s social preferences. When incentives constitute different states, we refer to social preferences as state-dependent preferences. There are three mechanisms that make social preferences state-dependent. First, by implementing an incentive, the principal discloses information about his intentions, about his beliefs about the target of the incentives and about the targeted behavior. This information might affect the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s social preferences which in turn affect the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Second, incentives provide situational cues for appropriate behavior. Finally, incentives may lead to a crowding out of intrinsic motivations. The crowding-out effect is based on the intuition that the presence of punishments or rewards spoils the reputational value of good deeds. This creates doubt within the individual about the extent to which he performed because of the incentives rather than for himself. This phenomenon is also referred to as the Ã¢â¬Ëoverjustification effectÃ¢â¬â¢ (Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973; as cited in Benabou & Tirole, 2004). In the next part of this paper IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give experimental evidence for both endogenous preferences and for all 3 mechanisms that make preferences incentive-state-dependent. Furthermore, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give examples of experiments where crowding in has been found and explain the underlying mechanisms. 1. Endogenous preferences: incentives alter how new preferences are learned Preferences are endogenous if someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences lead to durable changes in motivations and eventually result in a change in behavior in certain situations (Bowles, 2008). In most cases, experiments have a few hours duration and therefore itÃ¢â¬â¢s unlikely to uncover the mechanisms that are involved in the process of durable change of preferences. Although itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to explore the causal mechanisms at work, there exist some experiments that do show a durable learning effect (Irlenbausch & Sliwka, 2005; Falkinger, Fehr, Gachter, & Winter-Ebmer, 2000; all cited in Bowles, 2008). Gneezy and Rustichini (2000a), for example, examined if the introduction of a monetary fine for late-coming parents in day-care centers would lead to reduction of late-coming. However, the amount of late-coming parents didnÃ¢â¬â¢t decrease, but increased significantly. Thus incentives led to more self-interested behavior. More importantly, after the fine was removed no reduction in late-coming parents was shown, meaning that there was some durable learning effect going on. 2. State-dependent preferences: incentives provide information about the principal When an incentive is imposed on an agent, he may infer information about the principal who designed the incentive. He may, for example, infer information about the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs regarding the agent, and about the nature of the task that has to be done (Fehr & Rockenbach, 2003). This information can lead to a negative response to fines that are imposed by principals. Fehr and Rockenbach (2003) designed a sequentially played social dilemma experiment and examined how sanctions intended to prevent cheating affect human altruism. Participants in the role of Ã¢â¬ËinvestorÃ¢â¬â¢ could transfer a certain amount of money to another player, the Ã¢â¬ËtrusteeÃ¢â¬â¢. The experimenter tripled this amount. After tripling the money, the trustee was given the opportunity to back-transfer some of this money to the investor. The investor could indicate a desired level of the back-transfer before he transferred the money to the trustee. In the incentive-condition the investor even had the option to impose a fine if the trustee would send a back-transfer that was less than the desired amount. Instead of imposing a fine the investor could also choose to decline the use of the fine. The decision of imposing or declining the fine was known to the trustee. In the trust-condition the investor could not make use of incentives. Fehr and Rockenbach (2003) found that generous initial transfers by investors were reciprocated with greater back-transfers by trustees. However, the use of the fine reduced the return transfers, while renouncing the fine in the incentive-condition increased back-transfers. This means that sanctions revealing selfish or greedy intentions destroy altruistic cooperation almost completely (Fehr & Rockenbach, 2003). In another experiment by Fehr and Schmidt (2007), principals could choose between offering a bonus contract or a combination contract (which was a combination of the bonus contract with a fine) to the employee. What they found was that agents perceive that principals who are less fair are more likely to choose a combined contract and are less likely to pay the announced bonus. Furthermore the effect of effort on the bonus paid is twice as large in the pure bonus condition compared to the combined contract condition. The positive response to the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s renunciation of the fine option can be seen as a categorical effect. The threat of a fine led to diminishment of the trusteeÃ¢â¬â¢s reciprocity. 3. State-dependent preferences: incentives may suggest permissible behavior The experiments that will be described here, differ from the experiments mentioned above in the way that here incentives are implemented exogenously by the experimenter. This means that incentives do not provide any information about the beliefs or intentions of other experimental subjects. In a lot of situations people look for clues of appropriate behavior. These are often provided by incentives. These framing effects have been investigated in many studies. Hoffman, McCabe, Shachat and Smith (1994; as cited in Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012) found that by making a game sound more competitive after relabeling it, generosity and fair-minded behavior in the participants were diminished. In some other studies (Ellingsen, Johannesson, Munkhammar, & Mollerstrom, 2008; as cited in Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012) the framing effect even appeared to have changed subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs about the actions of others. Framing effects can also be induced in other ways than simply renaming the experiment. Providing an incentive may already provide a powerful frame for the decision maker. In an experiment of Schotter, Weiss and Zapater (1996) subjects played an Ultimatum Game experiment in which player 1 is given an endowment and asked to propose a part of this endowment to player 2. Player 2 can either accept or reject this division. If he accepts, the proposed division is implemented. However, if he rejects both players receive nothing. Schotter et al (1996) found that if a market-like competition was included in the game, that is, subjects with lower earnings would be excluded from the second round in the game, player 1 proposed less generous divisions to player 2. Furthermore, lower offers were accepted by player 2. The authors interpreted these results as that implementing market-like competition Ã¢â¬Å"offers justifications for actions that in isolation would be unjustifiableÃ¢â¬ (p. 38). Thus, providing incentives in the form of a competition can lead to moral disengagement. The framing effects of incentives can occur in cases of government-imposed incentives as well. An example comes from an experiment from Cardenas, Stranlund and Willis (2000) where they studied the effects of external regulatory control of environmental quality. Participants were asked to choose how much time they would spend collecting firewood from a forest, while being aware that this activity has a negative effect on local water quality. Two treatments were considered to examine whether external control may crowd out group-oriented behavior. All subjects played eight initial rounds of the game without any treatment, that is, without being able to communicate with each other and without external regulation. After the initial rounds, one subset of groups played additional rounds in which they were able to communicate. The other subset of groups was confronted with a government-imposed regulation. The regulation also involved the possibility of imposing a fine to subjects that would withdraw too much of the firewood. Although standard economic theory predicted that the regulation would increase group-oriented behavior, this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case. When subjects were able to communicate they made way more efficient decisions. However, regulatory external control caused subjects to make decisions that were closer to their self-interest. This means that the fine, although it was insufficient to enforce the social optimum, extinguished the subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethical aptitudes. 4. State-dependent preferences: incentives may compromise intrinsic motives and self-determination A third reason why social preferences may be state dependent is because providing incentives may lead to motivational crowding out. As Bowles (2008) put it: Ã¢â¬Å"where people derive pleasure from an action per se in the absence of other rewards, the introduction of explicit incentives may Ã¢â¬ËoverjustifyÃ¢â¬â¢ the activity and reduce the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of autonomyÃ¢â¬ (p. 607). According to Deci (1975; as cited in Bowles, 2008) the underlying psychological mechanism appears to be a desire for Ã¢â¬Å"feelings of competence and self-determination that are associated with intrinsically motivated behaviorÃ¢â¬ (p. 1607). There is a large body of literature on the psychology of intrinsic motivations going back to the early work of Festinger (1957; as cited in ThOgersen, 2003) and his cognitive dissonance theory. In the past decades a lot of experiments have been done to test the crowding out of intrinsic motivation. One of these studies comes from Gneezy & Rustichini (2000b) who tested the effects of monetary incentives on student performance. 180 students were asked to answer 50 questions of an IQ test. They were all paid 60 NIS (New Israeli Shekel) for their participation in the experiment. The students were divided into 4 different groups, which were all corresponding to 4 different treatments. The students in the first treatment group were only asked to answer as many questions as possible. The students in the second group got an extra payment of 10 cents of a NIS per question that they answered correctly. Subjects in the third group were promised 1 NIS, and subjects in the fourth group 3 NIS per question that they answered correctly. The average number of questions correctly was approximately 28 in the first group and declined to 23 in the second group. Furthermore, the number increased to 34 in both the third and the fourth group. The differences in performance were significant. In a second experiment Gneezy & Rustichini (2000b) tested the effect of incentives on volunteer work performed by high school children. 180 children were divided into three groups. The subjects in the first group constituted the control group and they were only given a speech about the importance of volunteer work. The second group was given a speech as well, but was also promised to receive 1 per cent of the total amount of donations collected. The third group was promised 10 per cent of the amount collected. The average amount collected was highest in the first group and lowest in the second group. The average amount that was collected by the third group was higher than that of the second group but not as high of the amount that was collected in the first group. Also these results were significant. It appears to indicate that the effect of incentives can be detrimental, at least for small amounts. In another experiment, Falk and Kosfeld (2006; as cited in Bowles 2008) tested the idea that control aversion based on the self-determination motive is the reason that incentives reduce performance. They used a principal-agent game where agents could choose a level of production that was beneficial for the principal, but costly for themselves. If the agent chose to produce nothing, he would get a maximal pay-off. Before the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision the principal could decide to leave the choice f production level completely to the agent or to impose a certain lower bound on the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s production level. The experimenter varied the bounds across the treatments and the principal could only choose to impose it or not. Results showed that when the principal imposed the bound, the agents chose a lower production level than when the principal didnÃ¢â¬â¢t impose a bound. The Ã¢â¬ËuntrustingÃ¢â¬â¢ principals earned half of the profits of those who did trust the agents and thus didnÃ¢â¬â¢t impose a bound. In post-surveys, the agents indicated that imposing the lower bound was perceived as a signal of distrust. The results of this experiment suggest that the desire for self-determination and control aversion are not the only effects of imposing the bound. Imposing this minimum was informative for the agents about what the principalsÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs were regarding the agents: the principals who imposed the bounds had lower expectations of the agents. Thus, the results in the experiment of Falk and Kosfeld (2006; as cited in Bowles 2008) seem to be the result of both negative information about the principal (or incentive designer) as well as the result of self-determination. 5. Crowding in Although a lot of experiments show that providing incentives has a negative effect on social preferences, there is also some evidence that crowding in can occur, that is, social preferences and incentives enhance the effect on each other. This might happen when an incentive provides good news about the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s type or intentions, for example when he offers the agent a reward rather than a fine. It is also seen in experiments where the incentive designers are peers in a public goods game who pay to punish free riders in order to sustain cooperative behavior (Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). The phenomenon of crowding in is interesting since it indicates how policies could be implemented optimally and how incentives and social preferences could become complements rather than substitutes (Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). Besides that, it appears that crowding in happens often in Public Goods games and Common Pool Resources games, which display the same characteristics as public policy settings. Below IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give an example of an experiment in which crowding in was found. Fehr and Gachter (2000) conducted a public good experiment with and without the opportunity to punish. In the no-punishment treatment the dominant strategy is complete free-riding. In the punishment treatment free-riders could be punished by their altruistic peers, since it was costly for them to punish. Therefore, if there were only selfish individuals, as assumed in economic theory, there wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a difference between the two treatments. However, in the no-punishment treatment the contributions of the players were substantially lower than in the punishment treatment. This suggests that powerful motives drive the punishments of free-riders. Furthermore there was evidence that the more free-riders deviated from cooperation, the more they were being punished. There are several mechanisms that can explain the effect of crowding in. In the first place when a peer imposes a fine on a free-rider, this may activate a feeling of shame. Barr (2001; as cited in Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012) found that just a verbal message of disapproval already can have a positive effect on the free ridersÃ¢â¬â¢ contributions. A second mechanism that appears to be at work it that nobody wants to be the cooperator while all others are defecting. Shinada and Yamagishi (2007, as cited in Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012) found that students cooperated more in a public goods experiment when they were assured that defecting free-riders would be punished. They just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be exploited by defectors. A third mechanism underlying crowding in was consistent with the findings of an experiment by Vertova and Galbiati (2010, as cited in Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). They found that when a stated obligation was introduced, this produced a larger effect when it was accompanied with a small monetary incentive, rather than with a big incentive or than when no incentives were offered. The authors interpreted this phenomenon as that the salience of the stated obligation is enhanced by large explicit incentives. The latter phenomenon was also found in Ireland, where a small tax was imposed on plastic grocery bags (Rosenthal, 2008; as cited in Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). After two weeks there was a 94% decline in the use of these bags. This result can be explained by the fact that the introduction of the tax was preceded by a large publicity campaign. Thus, the incentive was implemented jointly with a message of social obligation and it seems that it served as a reminder of the importance of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s civic duty. Implications for policy Many policies are based on the self-interest hypothesis that predicts that all individuals are self-regarding. However, as we have seen social preferences play an important role as well when it comes down to behavior. This would mean that a lot of current policies are non-optimal. Therefore a big challenge is facing the mechanism designer: how to design optimal fines, taxes or subsidies when the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s responses depend on his preferences which in turn are determined by the incentive imposed? In most experiments the effects of incentives were studies and afterwards the mechanisms were identified that could explain the results. However, one of the problems that the designer is facing is that he must determine beforehand how incentives will affect behavior. Based on the experiments that have been done, several guidelines can be drawn. The first is that when crowding out is found, social preferences and incentives are substitutes. This means that a negative effect of incentives is less likely to be found when the social preferences are minimal. In contrast, when social preferences are prevalent among a society, it may be more convenient to reduce the use of incentives. Also, policies that are implemented in order to enhance social preferences will be more effective when incentives are little used. The second stems from TitmussÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that if the crowding out effect is so strong that the incentive has an opposite effect than intended, incentives should be used less. However, in many cases the effectiveness of incentives is not reversed, but blunted and then the implications for the optimal use of incentive isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that obvious (Bowles & Hwang, 2008). How Bowles & Hwang (2008) state it: Ã¢â¬Å"the reduced effectiveness of the incentive associated with crowding out would entail a larger incentive for a planner designing a subsidy to ensure compliance with a quantitative targetÃ¢â¬ (p. 4). Present evidence is insufficient in providing enough guidelines to the policy maker who wants to know ex ante what the effects are of the incentives that he considers to implement (Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). What we do know is that the same incentives imposed by individuals who have no personal benefit but only want to promote pro-social behavior (as in the experiment of Fehr & Gachter, 2000) are more likely to increase contributions than when imposed by an untrusting principal (Fehr & Rockenbach, 2003). Furthermore it seems to be important to let the agent understand that the desired change in behavior would be socially beneficial rather than that the incentive is perceived as a threat to her autonomy or reflecting badly on the designerÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions (Bowles & Polania-Reyes, 2012). Conclusion The self-interest hypothesis assumes that individuals are only motivated by their own material self-interest. This assumption is used in the design of many policies. However, in the past decades a lot of experiments have shown that other-regarding social preferences rather than self-regarding preferences play a role in behavior. We have seen that some mechanisms can induce pro-socially oriented individuals to behave as they are selfish. On the other hand, there are also examples of experiments in which mechanisms induce self-interested individuals to behave at a more pro-social level. Thus, incentives can lead to both crowding out and crowding in phenomena. Whereas negative information about the principal and the over-justification effect may lead to crowding out of intrinsic motivation to contribute to a good, altruistic punishment by peers who do not benefit personally is more likely to increase contributions. Furthermore it seems important to make individuals aware of their civic duty, as was shown in Ireland where a small tax was imposed on plastic bags. Regarding to public policy, we have seen that small differences in institutional design can lead to many different outcomes. This imposes a big challenge on the policy designer who has to know ex ante what the effects of the incentive that he is considering to implement will be. When social preferences are not present, incentives may have a positive effect, predicted by economic theory. However, in areas where social preferences do play a role, the use of monetary incentives needs to be reconsidered.
Friday, August 30, 2019
GRAMMAR Topics: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A or an Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sentences using Yes, it is/No, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sentences using Yes, they are/No, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬ ¢ Singular Plural Ã¢â¬ ¢ Punctuation Ã¢â¬ ¢ My Favorite Fruit (Essay) Ã¢â¬ ¢ This is, There is/These are, There are Ã¢â¬ ¢ My Mom (Essay) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Noun Ã¢â¬ ¢ Proper Nouns Ã¢â¬ ¢ Verb Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sentences using can/canÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬ ¢ My Pet (Essay) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Words/Opposites Ã¢â¬ ¢ Masculine/Feminine Ã¢â¬ ¢ Comprehension Unit 0: Topic 1: A or an Definition: Exercise: (in copy) Q1: Fill in the blanks with a or an? 1. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a mat. 2. This is an umbrella. 3. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a book. 4. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an orange. 5. This is a fish. 6. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a tree. 7. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a cup. . This is an egg. 9. This is a pencil. 10. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an insect. Topic 2: Introducing Ã¢â¬Å"MyselfÃ¢â¬ 1. My name is _____________. 2. I am ___________ years old. 3. I like to _________________. 4. I live with my _____________. 5. There are __________ people i n my family. 6. I live in _________. Topic 3: Sentences using Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, it is/No, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ 1. Is it a mat? *. Yes, it is. 2. Is it an orange? * No, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. 3. Is it an apple? * Yes, it is. 4. Is it a rat? *. No, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. 5. Is it an egg? * Yes, it is. 6. Is it a cat? *. No, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬ Topic 4: Ã¢â¬Å"Singular / PluralÃ¢â¬ Definition: Singular |Plural | | | | |Cat |Cats | |Hat |Hats | |Pencil |Pencils | |Book |Books | |Door |Doors | |Egg |Eggs | |Banana |Bananas | |Rat |Rats | |Tree |Trees | |Biscuit |Biscuits | Topic 5: Ã¢â¬Å"PunctuationÃ¢â¬ Definition: Example: 1. Monkeys live in the trees. 2. I am a boy. 3. Dog is an animal. Exercise (in copy) Q1: Use capital letters and full stop. 1. there are two apples *. There are two apples. 2. sky is blue *. Sky is blue. 3. honey is sweet *. Honey is sweet. 4. ali has a pencil *. Ali has a pencil. 5. he was born in karachi *. He was born in Karachi. Work Sheet Punctuation Marks R ewrite these sentences using capital letters, full stop. 1. i like to eat vegetables __________________________________________________________________________ 2. this kite belongs to ali _________________________________________________________________________ 3. i like to paint and read books __________________________________________________________________________ 4. he is eating __________________________________________________________________________ 5. rana has a new bicycle __________________________________________________________________________ 6. i will go to school tomorrow __________________________________________________________________________ Work Sheet Punctuation Marks Rewrite these sentences using capital letters, full stop. 1. i like to eat vegetables I like to eat vegetables. 2. this kite belongs to ali This kite belongs to Ali. 3. like to paint and read books I like to paint and read books. 4. he is eating He is eating. 5. rana has a new bicycle Rana has a n ew bicycle. 6. i will go to school tomorrow I will go to school tomorrow. Topic 6: Ã¢â¬Å"MY FAVORITE FRUITÃ¢â¬ (ESSAY) 1. My favorite fruit is apple. 2. It is red in colour. 3. It has many seeds. 4. Its taste is sweet. 5. I like it very much. Ã¢â¬Å"COMPREHENSIONÃ¢â¬ Read passage and do the exercise? Ã¢â¬Å"A LITTLE FAIRYÃ¢â¬ Once there was a little fairy called Cindy. She lived in a little house in the forest. She had four lovely squirrels named Munch, Crunch, Punch and Bunch. They all had big, bright eyes and long tails. They loved to eat nuts.One day they left the nutshells all over the house and Cindy got very angry. She decided to punish them by not giving them food for a day. They learnt their lesson and did not mess up the house again. Answer the following question? Q1: Who was Cindy? Ans: __________________________________________________________________________ Q2: Where did she live? Ans: __________________________________________________________________________ Q3: How many squirrels were there? Ans: __________________________________________________________________________ Q4: What did the squirrels do one day? Ans: __________________________________________________________________________ Q5: How did Cindy punish them?Ans: __________________________________________________________________________ Ã¢â¬Å"COMPREHENSIONÃ¢â¬ Key Read passage and do the exercise? Ã¢â¬Å"A LITTLE FAIRYÃ¢â¬ Once there was a little fairy called Cindy. She lived in a little house in the forest. She had four lovely squirrels named Munch, Crunch, Punch and Bunch. They all had big, bright eyes and long tails. They loved to eat nuts. One day they left the nutshells all over the house and Cindy got very angry. She decided to punish them by not giving them food for a day. They learnt their lesson and did not mess up the house again. Answer the following question? Q1: Who was Cindy? Ans: Cindy was a little fairy. Q2: Where did she live? Ans: She lived in a little house in the forest.Q3: How many squirrels were there? Ans: There were four squirrels. Q4: What did the squirrels do one day? Ans: They left the nutshells all over the house. Q5: How did Cindy punish them? Ans: She decided to punish them by not giving them food for a day. Topic 7: Ã¢â¬Å"This is, There isÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"These are, There areÃ¢â¬ Definition: Ã¢â¬Å"Sentences on Ã¢â¬Å"This isÃ¢â¬ 1. This is a book. 2. This is a clock. 3. This is a pencil. 4. This is an orange. 5. This is an egg. Sentences on Ã¢â¬Å"There isÃ¢â¬ 1. There is a glass. 2. There is an umbrella. 3. There is an aeroplane. 4. There is a ruler. 5. There is a leaf. Sentences Ã¢â¬Å"These areÃ¢â¬ 1. These are apple. 2. These are cats. 3. These are buttons. 4. These are doors. 5.These are pins. Sentences on Ã¢â¬Å"There areÃ¢â¬ 1. There are two cups. 2. There are three balls. 3. There are some kites. 4. There are four fishes. 5. There are five tins. Topic 8: Ã¢â¬Å"MY MOMÃ¢â¬ (Essay) 1. My MomÃ¢â ¬â¢s name is ________________________. 2. She is ________ year old. 3. She is very beautiful. 4. She cooks food very tasty. 5. She takes care of me. 6. I love my mom very much. Topic 9: Ã¢â¬Å"NounÃ¢â¬ Definition: Example: Sara, Table, Cat, Karachi. Q1: Underline the mouse? 1. I have a pencil. 2. Sara is reading a book. 3. The hen has a pen. 4. Fish lives in water. 5. He went to Islamabad. 6. Ali and Tom are friends. 7. This jug is big. 8. I like to eat pizza. Note: Pencil, Sara, book, hen, pen, fish, Islamabad, Ali Tom, jug, pizza are nouns) * Topic 10: Ã¢â¬Å"PROPER NOUNSÃ¢â¬ Definition: Example: 1. Tom and Jerry. 2. Monday. 3. July 4. Summer. 5. Lahore. Ã¢â¬Å"ExerciseÃ¢â¬ Q1: Circle the Proper nouns? School, bag,Lahore, cake, Monday, van, pen, Donald Duck, ruler, Winter, shoes, March, book, America, bell, cup, Edison. Note: (Lahore, Monday, Donald Duck, Winter, March, America, Edison are proper nouns) Topic 11: Ã¢â¬Å"VERBÃ¢â¬ Definition: Example: 1. Eating. 2. Drin king. 3. Sleeping. 4. Reading. 5. Playing. Q1: Underline the verbs? 1. She is eating a cake. 2. They are going in a garden. 3. We are reading books. 4. You are laughing. 5. He is playing football. 6. Ali is crying. Note: eating, going, reading, laughing, playing, crying, are Verb) Topic 12: Ã¢â¬Å"SENTENCES USING CAN/CANÃ¢â¬â¢TÃ¢â¬ Definition: Example: 1. I can sleep. 2. I can play. 3. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t swim. 1. Can a cat run? *. Yes, it can. 2. Can a bee swim? *. No, it canÃ¢â¬â¢t. 3. Can you play football? *. Yes, I can. 4. Can you jump? *. Yes, I can. 5. Can you cook food? *. No, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t. Topic 13 : |Animals |Sounds | |Cat. |mew. | |Dog |bark. | |Hen |cluck. |Cow |moo. | |Goat |bleat | |Duck |quack. | |Wolf |howl. | |Horse |neigh. | |Donkey |bray. | |Snake |hiss. | Topic 14: Words / Opposites |Words Opposite | |On |Off | |In |Out | |Up |Down | |Come |Go | |Black |White | |Sit |Stand | |Dry |Wet | |Old |New | |Hard |Soft | |Near |Far | Topic 15: Masculine / F eminine Masculine |Feminine | |He |She | |Boy |Girl | |Father |Mother | |Brother |Sister |Son |Daughter | |Man |Woman | |King |Queen | |Bull |Cow | |Sir |Madam | |Horse |Mare | Topic 16: COMPREHENSIONÃ¢â¬ Read passage and do the exercise? Ã¢â¬Å"THE SINGING GRASSHOPPERÃ¢â¬ Once upon a time, there were two friends. They lived in the jingle. They were the ant the grasshopper. The ant was hard working insect. Everyday, it would go out to look for food. It would than bring the food back to its nest. The grasshopper was a lazy insect. It did not like to do any work. Instead, it lived to sing all long. Answer the following questions: Q1: Where did the two friends live? Ans: ________________________________________________________________________ Q2: Who were the two friends? Ans: ________________________________________________________________________Q3: What kind of an insect was the ant? Ans: ________________________________________________________________________ Q4: Wh ere did the ant bring back its food? Ans: ________________________________________________________________________ Q5: What kind of insect was the grasshopper? Ans: ________________________________________________________________________ Q6: What did the grasshopper do all the day? Ans: ________________________________________________________________________ Ã¢â¬Å"COMPREHENSIONÃ¢â¬ KEY Read passage and do the exercise? Ã¢â¬Å"THE SINGING GRASSHOPPERÃ¢â¬ Once upon a time, there were two friends. They lived in the jingle. They were the ant the grasshopper.The ant was hard working insect. Everyday, it would go out to look for food. It would than bring the food back to its nest. The grasshopper was a lazy insect. It did not like to do any work. Instead, it lived to sing all long. Answer the following questions: Q1: Where did the two friends live? Ans: Two friends lived in the jungle. Q2: Who were the two friends? Ans: They were the ant and the grasshopper. Q3: What kind of an ins ect was the ant? Ans: The ant was hard working. Q4: Where did the ant bring back its food? Ans: The ant brought back its food to its nest. Q5: What kind of insect was the grasshopper? Ans: The grasshopper was a lazy insect.Q6: What did the grasshopper do all the day? Ans: It loved to sing all long. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ is used before consonant. Ã¢â¬Å"AnÃ¢â¬ is used before vowels. Vowels a, e, i , o u Singular means one thing. Plural means more than one thing. Every sentences should begin with a capital latter and end with a full stop. Ã¢â¬Å"This is and there is, are used with one thingÃ¢â¬ . There are and these are used with two or more things. Word that name things are called Ã¢â¬Å"NounsÃ¢â¬ . Names of people, days, months, cities and seasons are a special kind of noun. They are called Ã¢â¬Å"Proper nounÃ¢â¬ . Doing words are called Ã¢â¬Å"VerbsÃ¢â¬ . We use Ã¢â¬Å"canÃ¢â¬ to talk about things that people are able to do.
Part 1: Sum up the cardinal beliefs the theoretical account promotes sing the acquisition and development of immature kids. Part 2: Supply an lineation of the theoretical influences that have been used in the development of the course of study theoretical account. What theories have influenced the current theoretical account and how are they reflected. Part 3: Sketch the cardinal scheduling and course of study elements the selected theoretical account uses for planning and puting up the acquisition environment. The paper will necessitate to sketch how elements of observation, planning and execution are used. Part 4: Supply a sum-up of the types of appraisal and certification schemes used to measure ongoing acquisition and program subsequent chances. Part 5: Using the ELECT papers rules used in the class, measure if and how the selected theoretical account supports the six nucleus rules. Include specific illustrations of how the single elements are supported by the theoretical account. Supply a set of recommendations for how the ELECT elements can be better supported in the theoretical account being researched, by pedagogues working in an early acquisition environment.Important:This assignment will be completed separately. All assignments must run into academic criterions of authorship, including referencing. Plagiarism is academic discourtesy. Assignments must be stapled, and have a cover sheet with your name, class name, teacher name, and due day of the month. This assignment is deserving 35 % of your grade, and will be marked following the affiliated marker rubric.Taging Rubric: Curriculum Model Research PaperAims non met 0 Markss Partially met outlooks 1 grade Met the basic outlooks as outlined for assignment 2marks Met the basic outlooks and besides provided some extra information to supply a clearer apprehension of subject 3marks Aims Thoroughly Met ( Comprehensive research and treatment of subject to the full supported with statements ; critical thought demonstrated. 4 Markss Provided a clear debut to paper sketching subject to be researched. Clearly identified cardinal beliefs built-in in course of study attack Cleary identified the assorted theories underlying theoretical account Ã¢â¬Ës beliefs Who? and How? ) Explained the function of observations in the theoretical account Ã¢â¬â How they are done. Ã¢â¬â Purpose of observations Explain how the initial planning is done utilizing the course of study theoretical account. Ã¢â¬â How learning experiences are determined. Ã¢â¬â How curriculum programs are recorded/tracked. Ã¢â¬â Function of the squad in planning. Explain how course of study is implemented. Ã¢â¬â Particular construction that needs to be used. Ã¢â¬â How are stuffs and infinite used? Ã¢â¬â How does the theoretical account Ã¢â¬Ës usage of clip impact the continuance of the acquisition experiences? Ã¢â¬â Educator Ã¢â¬Ës function during assorted facets of course of study. Sum up the types of appraisal schemes used in this course of study theoretical account. Ã¢â¬â Identified the function of appraisal in the course of study attack. What is the function of certification in this course of study attack? Used clear illustrations to explicate how this attack supports ELECT rule: Early kid development sets the foundation for womb-to-tomb acquisition, behaviour and wellness. Used clear illustrations to explicate how this attack supports ELECT rule: Partnerships with households and communities strengthen the ability of early childhood scenes to run into the demands of immature kids. Used clear illustrations to explicate how this attack supports ELECT rule: Respect for diverseness, equity, and inclusion are requirements for honouring kids Ã¢â¬Ës rights, optimum development, and acquisition. Used clear illustrations to explicate how this attack supports ELECT rule: A planned course of study supports early acquisition. Used clear illustrations to explicate how this attack supports ELECT rule: Play is a agency to early acquisition that capitalizes on kids Ã¢â¬Ës natural wonder and exuberance. Used clear illustrations to explicate how this attack supports ELECT rule: Knowing, antiphonal early childhood professionals are indispensable. Provided clear and concrete recommendations for how curriculum theoretical account can break back up the ELECT rules. Provided a clear set of reasoning comments sing what was learned from the research conducted. 0 Not done 1 Not done satisfactorily 2 Met satisfactorily Paper is organized, stapled and include screen. Academic criterion of English and grammar is used. Multiple beginnings of information are reflected in research. Mentions are formatted to A.P.A. manner. Entire MARK / 72 /35 AbstractionAChilds are adventurers and love to look into what is traveling on around them. Imagine if their whole twenty-four hours was spent in anA environment with beautyA formed by their ain creativeness? A Having the chance to play with natural and unfastened endedA stuffs of their ownA involvements, guidanceA from pedagogues to build their acquisition and believing on exciting subjects, and most significantly holding their households be greatly involved in their twenty-four hours, the larning results of each kid would be concrete and long lasting. These are the sorts of chances provided by pedagogues from the Reggio Emilia Approach, found by research worker and instructor Loris Malguzzi. Ã¢â¬Å" Creativity seems to emerge from multiple experiences, coupled with a well-supported development of personal resources, including a sense of freedom to venture beyond the known Ã¢â¬ ( Loris Malaguzzi, The Hundred Languages of Children, ch. 3, by Carolyn Edwards ( 1993 ) . This essay will be discoursing what the Reggio Emilia Approach is, and which constructivist theories influence the Reggio Emilia course of study. It will besides bring out the course of study elements and cardinal scheduling used in the attack and in conclusion how its attack supports the six rules of the ELECT papers used in Ontario. The subjects discussed in this paper will be based on the research found in the book Authentic Childhood Experiencing Reggio Emilia in the Classroom by Susan Fraser and besides on-line beginnings. A A A A A A First of all, what is the Reggio Emilia Approach? This inquiry arises amongst many people like, research workers in kid surveies, parents looking for child care, pedagogues looking to work, the authorities when looking to see statistics to see what course of study theoretical account has a successful result of quality child care and many more individuals who are interested in what different child care attacks provide.A In relation to this, the Reggio Emilia Approach was found by an early instruction specializer from a town in North Italy called Reggio Emilia his name was Loris Malaguzzi ( 1920-1994 ) . Malaguzzi Ã¢â¬Ës vision attracts the universe through his drama and undertaking based course of study, kids play and pedagogues guide their drama into undertakings that involvement them. The attack is a combination of rules that build the kid centred environment and course of study. Ã¢â¬Å" Collaboration Ã¢â¬ is when everyone works together and includes parents, pedagogues, communities and the kids ; Ã¢â¬Å" the image of the child-conceptualizing an image of the kid as competent, imaginative, and full of thoughts Ã¢â¬ ( Fraser, 2000, Page 8 ) . The Ã¢â¬Å" environment Ã¢â¬ is known as the 3rd instructor as it is carefully set up by pedagogues to dispute the kid Ã¢â¬Ës wonder and acquisition. Ã¢â¬Å" Documenting Ã¢â¬ is a show of what the kid Ã¢â¬Ës experiences are shown through linguistic communication and creativeness. Ã¢â¬Å" Aggravation Ã¢â¬ is when pedagogues listen carefully to what the kids are stating and farther steer the ideas and achievements. Plans and probes are besides made by everyone involved, which is known as Ã¢â¬Å" progettazione Ã¢â¬ . A alone rule found in the Reggio Emilia attack is the Ã¢â¬Å" one hundred linguistic communi cations of kids Ã¢â¬ which means that the kids use many different resources and stuffs to Ã¢â¬Å" do symbolic representations of thoughts that may originate Ã¢â¬ ( Fraser, 2000, Page 8 ) . The rules from the Reggio Emilia Approach besides include uninterrupted drama. As a whole it is an exciting acquisition environment for the kids, pedagogues and parents all co-learning together. As a 2nd point, allow Ã¢â¬Ës discourse which theories influence the Reggio Emilia course of study. For case in a Montessori school the doctrine will be of Maria Montessori and the twenty-four hours will be planned out utilizing didactic stuffs and consecutive stairss based on her research on kid surveies. The Reggio Emilia Approach is non merely based on one doctrine like the Montessori but it is really based on a figure of different philosophers. including Jean Piaget Ã¢â¬Ës theory for the sequences of cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky theory for the societal facets of acquisition and the importance of drama, Jean Dewey Ã¢â¬Ës theory for the function of drama, human nature and Ã¢â¬Å" sing the kid in the context of the household and society Ã¢â¬ ( Fraser,2000, Page14 ) , Hugh Gardiner Ã¢â¬Ës theory of multiple intelligences, Urie Bronfenbrenner Ã¢â¬Ës theory on the environment, Barbara Biber Ã¢â¬Ës theory included coaction and positive ego image, and there may be mo re. As a consequence of holding so many doctrines combined in the Reggio Emilia Approach, it is known to be a theoretical account, concentrating on the whole kid, development, environment, drama, household engagement, self image controlled by pedagogues truly understanding how to steer kids to show their feelings, and how kids use their multiple intelligence and symbolic linguistic communication. The 3rd subject this paper is turn toing, what are the course of study elements and cardinal scheduling used in Reggio Emilia Schools? Curriculum is what the kids learn from and the experiences they have when being cared for in a kid attention Centre. Key scheduling is the ends and agendas that a school may hold. Traditionally a batch of early child care Centres would be after what toys and activities the kids would play with and so assist and learn the kids how to utilize them or how to make an activity and so a study may be written to demo parents how the kid is acquiring along harmonizing to the kid Ã¢â¬Ës development phase. In the Reggio Emilia Approach the course of study is really different to traditional instructor taught course of studies. It is planned by what the kids are interested in while playing and prosecuting in activities of their pick. Appraisal is used to be after what to make in the schoolroom based on a kid Ã¢â¬Ës involvements. Its function in the undertaking procedure is to larn the kids Ã¢â¬Ës behavior, to detect kids Ã¢â¬Ës involvements, to revisit undertakings with the kids, to derive cognition on the kids Ã¢â¬Ës capablenesss and as a tool to analyze kids. The Reggio Approach suggests that by measuring undertakings over and over once more, kids understand their ain inquiries. It besides stresses that parents, kids and pedagogues are co-learners. Additionally the principle for pedagogues is to measure alongside the kids. Educators facilitate instead than directing the kids. Educators assess by detecting and stepping in or stepping back whenever they need to. They besides ask of import inquiries that challenge the kids to calculate things out by their ain wonder. Documentation is besides used to be after the Reggio Approach. Here there are many different methods of certification from simple note signifier to Ã¢â¬Å" the more sophisticated electronic equipment, such as digital cameras, webs, audio recording equipments, and picture recording equipments Ã¢â¬ ( Fraser, 2000, Page 83 ) depending on what sort of observations are being made. The different experimental techniques are running records which are the method used more frequently, clip sampling, art shows, event sampling, anecdotal records, tape recording, sequences of exposure, shows of undertakings, and picture tapes. In the Reggio Approach certification is used every bit shortly as something happens, The journal of Laura a diary taken from a Reggio Centre in Italy provinces that instructors work closely with the kids taking notes, entering observations they think have intending toward the acquisition of that kid. Documentation is done when needed there Ã¢â¬Ës non merely specific timings, notes can be taken at any clip, Documentation is done to further appraisal and planning towards undertakings that kids want to get down or are already working towards. The Reggio Emilia Approach does non hold an organized planned course of study it is really really self-generated and is built harmonizing to single or group involvements of the kids. To stress that the course of study is self-generated and is planned on the involvement of the kids pedagogues use different methods of observations at any clip. There are many ways to detect in the Reggio Approach. Note pickings is one manner to detect, they besides use journals to compose contemplations on observations, picture taking, picture, sound, written, watching drama and careful hearing to conversations. Parental observations are taken at place and noted. The principle for the parent appraisals are that they know their kids best and kids are carefully observed on how the environment is used. The Reggio Emilia Approach suggests that kids speak one hundred symbolic linguistic communications and they use observations to find and understand what these linguistic communications are. To clear up, obse rvations are used for appraisal, certification, planning and implementing the course of study. With this in head the pedagogue Ã¢â¬Ës function is to steer the natural wonder and acquisition of the kids, and the environment is known as the 3rd instructor. Ã¢â¬Å" The kids are small research workers. They can and desire to pass on with the environing universe Ã¢â¬ ( Reggio Emilia Philosophy, www.education.com ) . There are many factors that have to be taken into history when it comes to the function of observations and implementing. Ã¢â¬Å" The determination to transport out observations is normally the consequence of a inquiry that has arisen about a kid or a group of kids and their behavior or activities in the Centre Ã¢â¬ . ( Fraser, 2000, Page 81 ) Similarly, other factors have of import functions in implementing the acquisition procedure, for illustration clip is of import. Children need tonss of clip to work on on-going undertakings. In the Reggio Emilia Approach there are no clip limits on undertakings. Children work on undertakings every bit long as they are still interested. Space and layout is carefully set up for dramatic drama, H2O drama, block drama, physical and use, art and creativeness, out-of-door drama, and quiet clip country. This encourages societal accomplishments, job work outing accomplishments, doing personal picks and squad work methods. Ã¢â¬Å" Teachers carefully form infinites for little and big group undertakings and little confidant infinites for one, two and three kids Ã¢â¬ . ( About Reggio Emilia doctrine, www.education.com ) The environment is made to look beautiful and inviting. Another factor in implementing the course of study procedure is that the resources that are provided by the pedagogue, another of import function of the pedagogue. Materials are carefully chosen they can be natural stuffs, playthings, games, H2O drama, originative stuffs, unfastened ended stuffs, blocks, mystifiers, books, sand playthings, or even dress up apparels for dramatic drama. Children use the stuffs so they can play and foster their acquisition. To pull strings and get down the procedure of undertakings the pedagogues use positive linguistic communication and encouragement to assist kids larn how to show their emotions. Educators plan team meetings to discourse the observations and planning. Parents are ever welcome to fall in or assist do determinations. Meetings are used to be after what stuffs need to be taken out, how the environment should be set up, what is needed for undertakings that are emerging and besides what things need to be changed. The Reggio Emilia Approach is really similar to the emergent course of study. A batch of the factors used in Reggio are used in the emergent course of study, but the emergent course of study emphasizes development and involvement and Reggio emphasizes on involvement. The concluding point to discourse in this paper is about how the Reggio Emilia Approach uses all six rules of the ELECT papers. In the Reggio Emilia Approach there is a nexus to the first rule of the ELECT papers which is Ã¢â¬Å" Early kid development sets the foundation for womb-to-tomb acquisition, behaviour and wellness Ã¢â¬ An illustration of this is that journals are shown to parents, each undertaking is based on being kid centered and play based which means that it has to be developmentally appropriate, each appraisal is done to calculate out the involvements of the kid and each kid is observed to their ain developmental phase and long term undertakings are used so pedagogues can see how kids are turning and are developing their acquisition. Besides there are assorted doctrines used in the Reggio Approach one in peculiar linked to the different phases and sequences of development are the doctrine of Piaget. The 2nd rule of the ELECT papers is Ã¢â¬Å" Partnerships with households and communities strengthen the ability of early childhood scenes to run into the demands of kids Ã¢â¬ . The nexus to the Reggio Emilia Approach to the 2nd rule are that parents work as carbon monoxide scholars with pedagogues and kids in the Reggio Emilia attack and exposure are displayed around the Centre for the kids to hold a reminder of place. The 3rd rule of the ELECT papers is Ã¢â¬Å" Respect for diverseness, equity and inclusion are requirements for honouring kids Ã¢â¬Ës rights, optimum development and acquisition: . The following nexus to The Reggio Emilia Approach is parents are of import, one influence is the doctrine of Bronfenbrenner, Ã¢â¬Å" everyone involved -children, parents and teacher pay an built-in portion in what is known as the circle of we Ã¢â¬ ( Fraser, page.102 ) Reggio Centre Ã¢â¬Ës regard and support households, civilizations and all diverse state of affairss, in add-on to this, the Approach besides brings households together, larning about the different households, civilizations, nutrient and dressing up. The 4th rule of the ELECT papers is Ã¢â¬Å" A planned course of study supports early acquisition Ã¢â¬ . This rule is met by the undertakings that take topographic point in the Reggio schools, undertakings are worked on in deepness and item, the kid centered attack and kids Ã¢â¬Ës involvement program the course of study. Ã¢â¬Å" The Reggio Emilia Approach can be defined hence as Ã¢â¬Å" contextual Ã¢â¬ , that is, it is determined by the duologue among kids, instructors and the environment environing them Ã¢â¬ ( The Reggio Emilia Approach Ã¢â¬â Truly listening to immature kids, www.oecd.org ) . The 5th rule is Ã¢â¬Å" Play is a agency to early acquisition that capitalizes on kids Ã¢â¬Ës natural wonder and exuberance Ã¢â¬ , this rule is linked to the Reggio Emilia Approach The Reggio Approach is play based and has the same doctrine to the ELECT and the Emergent which is that kids learn and grow through different types of drama. Ã¢â¬Å" The word Ã¢â¬Å" drama Ã¢â¬ is non a often used word in The Reggio Approach, although as seen above, self-generated drama and drama valued as Ã¢â¬Å" meaningful acquisition Ã¢â¬ figure among the ends for larning and development. ( The Reggio Emilia Approach Ã¢â¬â Truly listening to immature kids, www.oecd.org ) , in add-on to this the Reggio Emilia Approach besides states that drama is used to picture 100 different linguistic communications through symbolic linguistic communications. The last rule, rule six is Ã¢â¬Å" Knowing, antiphonal early childhood professionals are indispensable Ã¢â¬ . This rule is besides linked to Reggio Emilia Ã¢â¬Ës Approach, as Reggio Centers have instructors with extended staff development ; instructors make ends for them self and instructors besides learn alongside the kids heightening their apprehension of kids. Another illustration of this rule is that the pedagogues of Reggio schools sometimes are non qualified but learn from the other instructors and through each day-to-day experience with the kids. In decision to this paper it shows that it can take a figure of doctrine Ã¢â¬Ës to make a high quality theoretical account, and that non merely one doctrine is better than another, but each doctrine really compliments one another, likewise it proves that kids do n't needfully necessitate to be taught by a instructor but can larn by holding the chance to build their ain acquisition through a kid centered attack. In add-on this paper besides shows that the function of drama, civilization, parents, pedagogues, the environment, observations, appraisal, certification, and planning are all really of import to implement a kid Ã¢â¬Ës acquisition to do up a theoretical account like the Reggio Emilia Approach. Finally this paper proves that the Reggio Emilia Approach follows an emergent course of study that can associate to all six rules of the model provided by the ELECT papers.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Traditional market structure suggests that all market decisions should be based on utilitarian theory. We often witness market decisions which neglect other important aspects of the market activity. As a result, we appear under the impact of one-side unbalanced decisions which ultimately neglect the principles of morality and moral theology of the marketplace.Rising fares and tolls by MTAÃ Ã¢â¬Å"After an unusually vigorous and spirited debate, the board of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority voted to raise fares on subways, buses and commuter railroads and tolls on bridges and tunnelsÃ¢â¬ (Chan, 2007a). Why is it so surprising that not all members of the MTA board wanted to turn into the proponents of fares and tollsÃ¢â¬â¢ increase? Does this mean that more and more political and business players realize the importance of morality in taking market decisions?Evidently, the situation is much worse than one may imagine. One may initially think that increasing the fares wil l lead to less traffic congestion, and will urge more people to use public transport; yet, the public transport fares are being raised, too. From the viewpoint of those who vote for raising fares and tolls in New York, this decision is the first step towards Ã¢â¬Å"fiscal responsibility. The authority had for long applied windfalls and real estate taxes hoping that someone would bail us out and turning a blind eye to our responsibility to put this MTA on a firm future monetary structureÃ¢â¬ (Chan, 2007a).Simultaneously, from the viewpoint of morality and theology of the marketplace, commercial activity is not limited by rational market decisions, but also Ã¢â¬Å"confronts us with the moral predicamentsÃ¢â¬ (Gregg, 2004). The major concern within this situation is that the decision to raise fares has completely neglected the position of those whom we traditionally consider to be vulnerable populations. The representative of Working Families Party is confident that raising fares will seriously hit working people (Benjamin, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Today, once again middle class New Yorkers and those struggling to make it, are bearing the costÃ¢â¬ , Rep. Anthony Weiner said (Benjamin, 2007).Ã¢â¬Å"A fare hike now is the wrong choice for New York. It would hit many people who are struggling hard to make ends meet and hurt the region's economy. [Ã¢â¬ ¦] This fare hike will hit 86 percent of the riding public who use fare discounts. These include pay-per-ride bonus MetroCards and 7- and 30-day unlimited-ride passes. It's also a double whammy for most L.I.R.R. and Metro-North commuters whose railroad fares would go up!Ã¢â¬ (Chan, 2007b)The discussed fare hike will also cause the bonuses' decrease for riders (from 20 to 15 percent), and the discounted fare will cost $1.74 instead of $1.67 (Chan, 2007b). The problem is that New Yorkers pay more than they have to for the transport they use. Ã¢â¬Å"In 2005, riders paid 55 percent of the costs of running the subways and busesÃ¢â¬ (Chan, 2007b). Objectively, this is much higher that the riders in other cities pay: those in Boston do not compensate more than 29 percent of the discussed costs, and those in Philadelphia pay no more than 37 percent (Chan, 2007b).As the M.T.A reports $140 million reductions, does this mean that they will make the riders pay this amount through higher fares and tolls? Doubtlessly, the suggested fares and tolls increase will help compensate the under-financing of the MTA by the state Government, but if the decision framework remains unchanged, this compensation will actually take place for the account of the already mentioned vulnerable populations. Ã¢â¬Å"To rely upon utilitarianism as the moral Ã¢â¬â philosophical foundation of the case for the market creates tremendous difficulties for CatholicsÃ¢â¬ (Gregg, 2004).The utilitarian desire to find the greatest good and to satisfy the masses does not meet the ethical and moral criteria of religion. Those who were ta king the decision to raise the fares and tolls in New York have neglected one essential aspect in their decision making: when one looks for the means to produce the greatest pleasure for the greatest number of people, one has to perform numerous calculations and to produce the decision which satisfies everyone. From the viewpoint of moral theology, such calculations in market decision-making are simply impossible. Ã¢â¬Å"No person can make such an assessment without admitting a tremendous degree of ignorance about all the possible effects that might proceed from a freely chosen actÃ¢â¬ (Gregg, 2004).The MTA governors have evidently gone beyond their reasonable abilities, trying to persuade us that that the future with raised fares and tolls for everyone was better than other possible alternatives. The MTA board members view the increased tolls and fares as the means to close the gaps in MTAÃ¢â¬â¢s budget and to provide safe and reliable system of transportation for the New York Ã¢â¬â¢s citizens. However, it is not the ultimate goal for those who use public transport and belong to vulnerable layers of the city population.ConclusionThe moral theology of marketplace rejects any uniform measures in defining the goals of decision making. This is why the governors should have considered the financial opportunities of those who cannot afford paying more for using public transport. The diversified structure of prices would resolve all moral and ethical issues, and would not create serious obstacles on the way towards better functioning of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s transportation systems.ReferencesBenjamin, E. (2007). MTA fare hike reactions (updated). Daily News. Retrieved February 17,2008 from http://www.nydailynews.com/blogs/dailypolitics/2007/12/mta-fare-hike-reactions.htmlChan, S. (2007a). Board approves subway and bus fare increase. The New York Times.Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/19/mta-board-approves-fare-and-toll-incr eases/index.html?hpChan, S. (2007b). Hundreds stranded online by botched M.T.A. Ã¢â¬Å"WebinarÃ¢â¬ . The New YorkTimes. Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/10/mixed-reaction-to-new-mta-fare-plan/?hpGregg, S. (2004). Ethics and the market economy: Insights from Catholic moral theology.IEA Economic Affairs, June, pp. 4-10.
Avoid Being Late Lasonya Dawson Grand Canyon University PSY-102 October 24, 2010 Avoid Being Late The act of being late can be avoided by taking certain measures. The first thing you have to be able to do is admit that you had a problem with being on time. The next thing you have to do is be able to identify what causes you to be late. The next thing that you have to be is willing to do is make the necessary changes to correct the issues. The issue can be corrected with acknowledging all of the above and realize that this can be a very career threatening thing.The admittance that you have issue with being on time is the very first step in starting the process is resolving the issue. When you are late the problem starts in the preparation of the day before or the day of. One has to be able to picture in their mind what needs to be the day before and have a backup plan if needed. If one is in denial that they have a problem being on time, then there is little that can be done to correc t the issue. Once you have acknowledged the issue then you can find a solution or set up some type of system to resolve it. One has to be able to identify what triggers or causes them to be late.When you realize the point when time starts to get in a bit of a crunch could be sign of you being late. You have to be able to figure out is it the day before preparation or is it that you may have to try to multitask. Multitasking is the act of doing several things at the same time to get all completed in a timely manner. One should be able to see the pattern and the signs that occur when they are about to be late. When you are able to make the necessary changes to eliminate being late then you will be able to see what a positive effect it has on all things in your life.Once the changes are made to correct the issue you should become a more productive person. The key to being on time is time management. If you are able to manage your time well usually you are always on time. I pride myself on being on time. I start the day before if I know I have to be somewhere at a certain time the next day. I start by doing everything that I can possibly do the day before so that it will not slow me down the next day. I start with the kids. I ironing their clothes, getting their snacks together, and making sure I know how much time I am going to need to get them ready.I can say that I am rarely late to anything that I am expected to be on time to. I accredit it to the fact I feel like I am going to miss something if I am late and I hate to be in a hurry or having to do things at the last minute. The issue will not just be resolved in just one attempt. You have to be willing to try different things over a period of time. You have to be able to set a realistic time frame that you will be able to say that you have the issue under control. One has to set short term goals and follow through with them. You can start as simple as doing some things the day before that you would normally d o the day of to save time.One may follow up next with trying to multitask and take care of several things at once but, do not overwhelm yourself. Finally you can use what you have been training yourself to do on a family outing and set a time that you expect yourself to be there. You can even go so far as to grade yourself. There should also be some consequences for you being late. You can make an agreement with yourself to take away things that you like to do. You should also reward yourself for being on time until you have gotten the issue under control. I could start by taking away television time from you or even internet time from yourself.You can reward yourself by buying something that you like. There should always be penalties for allowing you to be late as well as rewards for being on time. The main thing that one has to realize is the negative effect that being late has on your career. Being late shows signs that you are not dependable. You should think it as if you are go ing to an interview and that if you are late then you are not going to get the job that you so desperately need. If one can place that kind of pressure on themselves then you should be able to always
Rise and Fall of Enron - Research Paper Example Enron was an energy company that had the marketing of electricity and natural gas as its main activities.Ã ItsÃ¢â¬â¢ revenues in 2000 were (supposedly) of $ 100 billion and the market value of the company exceeded $ 60 billion, which meant 70 times earnings and six times book value (Thomas, pp.41).Ã The company benefited from the deregulation of the energy market, facilitated by the company's own lobby in donations to political campaigns, but without the use of accounting gimmicks and management practices suspicions never had reached this level. Enron collapsed taking along with itself pension funds of its employees and other investors in the same category, a shortfall of at least $ 1.5 billion and dragging a debt of more than $ 13 billion.Ã For years, the company's directors maligned balance sheets, wiped the losses and inflated profits.Ã The magic book worked until the end of 2001.Ã Enron is the product of stunning deregulation of the energy sector.Ã It was a success and everyone wanted to invest in its actions as it was an excellent company with a higher rate of return, their investment valued up every month, even in times of crisis. The stock prices fell from a record high of $90 in 2000 to $0.60 at the end of 2001, after the scandal was revealed (Bratton, pp.1275). Trade operations of the company were based on complex financial transactions, most referring to businesses that would occur several years later, a practice that inflated their profits.Ã Operators placed the value of the company's shares way high, suggesting that before these future actions would even appreciate, without having to justify the markdown price, was the mark-to-market. Mark-to-market means considering a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets so highly valued that it is possible to liquidate them at any time by the current market price.Ã The actions came to be worth about $ 85, behind the scenes; however, the company could only lose on failed projects internet and plants that never operated in India (Thomas, pp.50).Ã There is evidence that senior company executives were also involved in the fraud, as well as major banks.Ã The Securities and Exchange Commission initiated an investigation.Ã Enron was forced to redo their balance sheets for the last five years and admit that its profit in the period was $ 600 million lower than originally reported (Thomas, pp.44).Ã Auditors Fabricating the Facts The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s auditor was Arthur Andersen, one of the key executives of the company, which contributed to concealing the scam, while, manipulating the revenue recognition principles.Ã Since being involved with the collapse of Enron, Andersen lost many prestigious clients. The company's employees took damage by losing their jobs; their savings in most cases were invested in Enron stock (Thomas, pp.46).Ã The tragic end of Enron shook the confidence of the American financial system.Ã According to the lawsuit filed by former shareholders, Enron hid th e injury and decreasing profits with the connivance of accounting firm, Arthur Andersen auditor (Healy & Palepu, pp.12).Ã Former Enron auditor approved fraudulent accounting practices and illegal schemes adopted to hide losses and then destroyed the evidence of the crime.Ã Involvement of White HouseÃ Enron was regarded as an innovator, admired (elected between 1996 and 2001 as one of the most admired companies according toÃ FortuneÃ magazine) and dynamic, and Kenneth Lay was a celebrity worlds of business (something that is not seen much in the post
A suitable marketing plan for a football club - Coursework Example The article takes a deeper look at the football club of Hapoel Petach Tikva that was founded in the year 1935 in the town of Petach Tikva in Israel. During the phase of 1950s and 1960s, the football club won various noteworthy championships such as Israeli Championships and State Cup and the period was considered as the most flourishing phase of success for them. The home ground of Hapoel Petach Tikva is HaMoshava Stadium which was recently opened at the end of 2011 replacing Petach Tikva Muncipal Stadium as the home ground of the football team. The recently built stadium i.e. HaMoshava Stadium which the club has started to use from this season is possessed by the city authorities of Petach Tikva and not by the club itself. The capacity for the attendances of HaMoshava Stadium is 12500. During the phase of 1950s and 1960s, football became the most renowned local sport in Israel. There lie certain basic features that dominated football in Israel after the establishment of the state in the year 1948. The basic features that dominated football in Israel were both political and nationalistic. The local sport of Israel i.e. football fell under the sponsorships of three political centres or federations such as HapoÃ¢â¬â¢el, Maccabi and Beitar. The influences of these federations were noteworthy towards the local football clubs. The Israeli Football Association (IFA) controlled and monitored the beautiful game of soccer through these federations. The concept of sports marketing comprises certain activities that are mainly designed to meet with various requirements of the sports consumers. In order to comply with the various requirements of the sports consumers broadly concerning the sport spectators, an effective marketing plan is very much necessary for any sports organisation or any sporting club (Morgan & Summers, 2005). The report aims to deliver an adequate marketing plan for Hapoel Petach Tikva in order to raise their number of attendances to a significant lev el. Moreover, the marketing plan also includes certain marketing strategies for its successful execution. In the report, there are several areas where the marketing plan intends to focus upon. The several areas include the evaluation of the market environment, attendance purposes, complete analysis of the market segments, recognising target markets and different implications of marketing mix strategies. An Assessment of the Market Environment of Hapoel Petach Tik
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Critical assesment of geochemistry and geophysics - Essay Example It is mostly the remnants that have been buried by layers soil and rocks that have higher chances of being preserved. This is because the exposed cultural remnants may be displaced by anthropogenic or environmental factors (Blofeld J. 2004 p.71). The buried remains are usually covered with sediments accretion from water and wind erosion or natural processes such as earthquakes, mud flows and earth quakes. Some old structures may also be buried when new ones are built on top of them. The buried remains are effectively explored through geophysical and geochemical prospecting. These methods are efficient in detecting the invisible characteristics of the remains. The devices used in are significant in distinguishing between relics, which is significant in tracing human remains. The two techniques were developed in a bid to increase professionalism in archeology. The use of geophysics is an effective way of detecting deviations in the magnetic field of the earth through the use of magnetometers. These magnetic fields emanate from artifacts of iron metal as well as structures that were made of stone. Together with these techniques, devices that measure electrical resistance of the soil are also used (Bose R. N. 2005 pp.56-57). Geophysical and geochemical prospecting are two major techniques that have been widely employed. The two techniques are significant in the identification of human activities that exist as remains buried under the earth surface. The characteristics of the remains are analyzed by an expert who establishes whether they represent human activities or natural factors. The archeological site of Apamee was investigated with the use of the two techniques. They have enhanced the understanding of this archeological site. In the United Kingdom, the two techniques have been applied in many archeological surveys (Braithwaite, R. 2001 pp. 121-123). Fluxgate gradiometers are the most commonly used for surveying due to the fact that they are affordable for
Did Horse_ebooks Show Us that SPAM is the Web's Native Artform - Essay Example Based on the arguments and facts presented by the video, I agree that spam is the native form of art for the internet. Spam remains a native form of art for internet users because they always seem to surrender to banner ads. The lengthy period spam has been on the internet would cause one to argue that users are used to and aware of spam by just looking at it. However, despite this knowledge, internet users seem unable to resist clicking on spam posing as banner ads. As a result, online and blog marketers continue using spam as an advertising tool because of its effectiveness and seemingly captivating nature (PBS Idea Channel 2014). At the same time, there are millions of new internet users daily. Arguably, these users are obviously unaware of spam and its potential effect on private accounts. Eventually, new users will further this native form of art because of their unawareness and marketers will continue using it so long as it is effective. Operating as a spambot, Horse_ebooks is an excellent example of the reaches AI (artificial intelligence) can reach when applied as a marketing tool. According to Rugnetta, Horse_ebooks was an Ã¢â¬Å"algorithmic assembled poetry,Ã¢â¬ which acted as the essence of the bot (PBS Idea Channel 2014). This definition explains why Horse_ebooksÃ¢â¬â¢ admirers and twitter followers found its posts intriguing and even poignant. Knowing that a machine operated the account compelled people to expect posts about ad links, meaningless statements, and often irritating news or products and services. However, Horse_ebooksÃ¢â¬â¢ posts were a depiction of advanced AIÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to communicate and interact in an almost human way. This ability was the source of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s connection with the bot, as well as the operatorÃ¢â¬â¢s initial intent of using it as a marketing tool. Like any other type of community, the internet aggressively searches for its native forms of art and spam is the best example and Ã¢â¬Å"candidateÃ¢â¬ (PBS
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Quality improvement in long term care - Essay Example 40% of the residents require assistance with feeding. The high numbers of non-ambulatory patients put this facility put it among only 10% in the state. On May 10, 2004 the facility was investigated for a complaint which resulted in a substandard quality of care under Quality Indicator number 4, a prevalence of depression symptoms that also include two of the following; negative comments from residents, agitation or withdrawal, unpleasant mode upon waking, suicidal, weight loss or recurring thoughts of death. I choose the number 4 Quality Indicator for Emotional/Behavior Patterns due to its effect on quality of life. It may also be the end result of the other deficiencies at the facility, which included a high percentage of indwelling catheters, excessive amounts of medications and lack of assistance with personal care. The Quality Indicators for Emotional/Behavior Patterns of agitation and suicide could be signs of overdose of antidepressant medications. Sadness and withdrawal might be symptoms of depression as well as thoughts of death or weight loss, which needs to be treated. Depression encompasses both physical and mental health and can alter the responsiveness to nutritional and physical therapy as well as medical treatments. This deficiency has a potential for more than minimal harm. As per guidelines of the American Medical Directors Associ... Blood tests should include a chemistry profile, complete blood count, serum levels for anticonvulsant or tricyclic antidepressants, thyroid test or other levels pertaining to the individual in question. Before addressing pharmacogenesis of depression, however, consider another factor: Depression in the older adult if often more difficult to diagnose than in younger people. One reason is a prevailing misconception within general society, and even with the professional community, that older adults are supposed to be depressed, that it a natural part of getting older. In fact, an older adult's functional status, or level of impairment thereof, is often more influential than mere aging in shaping a person's mood. The residents of nursing homes usually have significant levels of debilitation, often arising from numerous chronic conditions. The complex nature of these conditions often frustrates physicians and treatment staff, often leading residents to have a sense of sadness or depression. (Garavaglia, 2006) If psychological testing and laboratory testing demonstrate that the resident is in need of psychiatric services, medical treatment or a medication adjustment and those measures lead to improvement, then the nursing staff needs to monitor the behavior and attitudes of the resident to prevent any digression or reaction to prescribed medications. If the depression does not appear to have a physical cause then assessment of the resident's environment and quality of life is the next step. Nursing should ask a few questions to determine the Quality of Care Improvement Plan. Is the resident capable of doing more personal care for himself, but needs clothes laid out or some other measure to maintain some independence If the resident is
End of the course reflection - Essay Example However, the writing skills develop with time. In writing, we consider the purpose, audience, and rhetorical strategies for any writing process. Indeed, my writing has improved with time where I have manifested fundamental changes in my method of writing. Initially, writing proved a difficult task for me since I could not understand different writing topics and develop an idea for writing. Moreover, my writing manifested numerous grammatical errors, poor formatting, incoherence, and lack of logical flow. Nevertheless, I have perfected my writing after a continued practice. Indeed, writing is a learning process that has enabled me to improve my writing skills. As I advanced in my course, I made significant adjustments in my writing practice to address the professional audience that involved my tutors and fellow students. Moreover, the need to present professional messages and address particular aspects in my course forced me to adjust my writing. As such, my writing became more objective, focused and professional. The changes in my writing style altered my grammar, introduction, rhetoric strategies, and diction that enhance professionalism in my works. As a result, my writing was able to convince my colleagues and met the course standards. I have developed immense love in writing about different topics. Initially, I wrote for fun and followed no procedures since I lacked a professional audience. I have learned to go through the subject before starting to write about a particular topic. The process has enabled me to understand what I am writing about with the aim of convincing my audience and addressing all the course aspects. I also write and revise a draft after understanding the writing concept that helps me to eliminate irrelevance and grammatical errors in my writing. I have also learned the need to proofread my work before submitting that
Monday, August 26, 2019
Gender and Consumer Culture - Essay Example The culture of consumption is related with goods and products, where the purchase activities are largely grounded on the quality of the products and the value of its material usage. The difference in style possessed by different genders has therefore often been evaluated during the transitional phase, from pre-industrial economy to an industrialized and capitalistic economy, where the sole aim of the manufacturers was to maximise production and earn higher amount of revenue through the sales (Leonini & Santoro, 2004). It has further been observed that even though production dominated the earlier periods, in the modern era, consumer goods have gained its significance as the supreme factor which influences the purchasing behaviours of both the genders. In this context, shopping malls have replaced individual shops where the rudiments influencing consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ purchasing behaviour reflects immensely. Furthermore, from the perspectives of family, woman has been observed to spend thei r earnings towards fulfilling their family needs by a significant extent. Comparatively, men are generally noticed to keep aside a proportion of their earnings for their personal requirements. However, differences have aroused in situations where women are examined to be dependent on the earnings of the male members for the effective accomplishment of their family needs. Recent studies in this regard state that women are more concerned about the welfare of their family and children and thereby prefer spending for themselves after the needs of other family members have been attained. On the contrary, men have been identified to possess individualistic attitudes while considering the consumption choices (Leonini & Santoro, 2004). Emphasising on this conception, the study will evaluate the various factors that determine the consumption behaviour of both the genders. Furthermore, it will focus on identifying the relationships shared between consumption and gender analysing the ways in w hich the gender based perspectives tend to influence the consumption patterns amid customer groups. Literature Review According to Grazia & Furlough (1996), while decorating their homes, women not only focus on furnishings and attractive appliances, but also tend to consider the style and tastes of the other family members. Furthermore, women magazines, furnishings and marriage manuals have been an influencing commodity for the women consumers in deciding the consumption of its products. In relation to the modern day context, the development of departmental stores in major cities has further been observed to have re-defined the experiences of shopping for the female customers which was earlier considered as a highly-skilled task in regard to homemaking (Grazia & Furlough, 1996). However, Felski (1995) argued that although women consider themselves a prime source for decoration of households, they are the most irrational consumers, simply prone to wastefulness and extravagance when e ncountered with the attractive displays of products for sale (Felski, 1995). Thus, it can be stated that even though women are more concerned about family choices while consuming products, they are at times illogical while purchasing products, especially for the decoration purposes. This is because they cannot resist the attractive displays set up in the shopping malls which give them the opportunity to choose from a wide range of products. According to Veblen (1965), consumption is a symbolic act that evolved from the difficult distinction between Ã¢â¬Ësubordinate working people and dominant leisure classesÃ¢â¬â¢
LITERARY HISTORY, INTERPRETATION, & ANALYSIS - Essay Example In Anne SextonÃ¢â¬â¢s Her Kind, the narrator identifies herself as an Other but at the same time celebrates her Otherness in the last stanza. The poem represents Otherness through vivid imagery of women who are associated with the evil forces in fairy tales and myth. For example, the narrator refers to herself as Ã¢â¬Å"a possessed witchÃ¢â¬ (line 1) and a woman who Ã¢â¬Å"fixed the suppers for the worms and the elvesÃ¢â¬ (line 11). Sexton uses words and phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"black,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"lonely thing,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"disalignedÃ¢â¬ to represent how the Other is isolated from the mainstream because the narrator of the poem Ã¢â¬Å"is not like a womanÃ¢â¬ (6) and Ã¢â¬Å"is misunderstoodÃ¢â¬ (13). Sexton displays an undaunted and unashamed attitude towards Otherness in the poem. In the first two stanzas are filled with actions as the narrator describes what she as the Other does. Instead of lamenting the fact that she is an outcast, the narrator presents her acts in a plain but highly descriptive language that engage the reader. Both stanzas have a fairy tale like quality as Sexton mentions Ã¢â¬Å"witch,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"worms,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"elves.Ã¢â¬ It conjures up a sense of mystery without arousing much sympathy for the Other. The last stanza is written in a different style than the previous two; it is closer to the reality and for once the narrator mentions a person other than herself. In this stanza, the narrator appears to be a Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ and cheerful woman who is in touch with other people in the society as she Ã¢â¬Å"waved her nude arms at villages going byÃ¢â¬ (line 16). However, starting from line 18, the bright imagery turns into a painful bodily experience. Here the narrator is celebrating her courage to live this lifestyle and Sexton uses a very strong phrase Ã¢â¬Å"A woman like that is not ashamed to dieÃ¢â¬ to demonstrate such quality. The Others in this work may be women who defy social expectations, for example, women who do not or are not willing to fulfill
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Persuasive - Essay Example Indeed, certain basic assumptions about the leadership qualities especially which relates to the individual approach of tackling issues and objectives, may create a vast difference to the results achieved. While leader is endowed with many qualities but exemplary leaders is one who encourages freedom of choice. Leaders are not pre defined and molded into certain stature. They are people who may be in the position to influence and motivate others to give their best. Organizational leadership assumes special meaning because it motivates and encourages others to strive towards common goals with renewed enthusiasm. It is equally important that certain basic assumptions about the organizational leadership qualities especially which relate to the individual approach of tackling issues and objectives, may create a vast difference to the results achieved. Leadership assumes special meaning because it motivates and encourages that target group within the population that plays a crucial part in the future of nation building processes. Through effective communication and dissemination of information, the leadership promotes empowerment. It is vital for leaders to empower other people so that their decision making power is greatly enhanced through exercising informed choices effectively. Empowerment can be broadly defined as freedom to exert oneÃ¢â¬â¢s choices for their own good by implementing them. In the contemporary time, empowerment has become one of the most crucial issues among the masses as it directly influences the welfare of the individuals and the society at large. Empowerment facilitates realization of self worth, instilling self confidence in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to make independent decisions about themselves, especially with relation to their socio-economic and political decisions. Hence, an empowered person has more options and freedom to transform those choices into concrete action plans for the betterment of self and the
Moral Implications of Media Violence and Its Affects On Society - Research Paper Example The ability to produce and distribute independent content is among the most important rights in a democratic societyÃ¢â¬ (Rand-Hendriksen: Long Version, 2011, par. 1). Despite support to freedom of expression, there is still a need to enforce gun control laws, for instance, where failure to restrict purchase and use have been proven to endanger the lives of children and those around them. As emphasized by President Clinton in response to the Littletons Columbine High School shootings, Ã¢â¬Å"access to weapons was greater in the United States than anywhere else in the world, and pledged to continue to work for legislation that would help keep guns out of the wrong handsÃ¢â¬ (CNN Politics, 1999). Media should also have the ethical responsibility to remind children of the danger of using guns and enforce strict restrictions to access and use through legislative policies that propose strict sanctions for violations. One therefore agrees that it is acceptable opinion based on moral reasoning to justify banning of violent content for programs that could be viewed and accessed by children and teen-agers on identified time slots, in addition to provision of classifying television programs to include strict parental guidance and restricted, as needed. According to a report published by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Ã¢â¬Å"the problem is not that the broadcast TV networks can no longer discern contemporary community standards. The problem is that they long ago stopped caring much about these standardsÃ¢â¬ (p. 16). It finally confirmed that Ã¢â¬Å"among those very important tasks are maintaining a decent society, protecting the privacy of the home, and protecting childrenÃ¢â¬ (Federal Communications Commission, n.d., p. 35). CNN Politics. (1999, April 22). Clinton discusses school violence with high schoolers. Retrieved August 21, 2012, from articles.cnn.com:
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Animation Critique - Essay Example Animation is a form of art in which a world of an energetic picture and sound may be incorporated entirely out of nothing except for an idea. The world of animation started emerging in the eyes of the general public before 1910. During the early days of animation, it was thought to be as labor intensive as many numerous drawings and paintings had to be made just to make a short few minute film. It took too many men and too much time just to make short films and was very hard as replicas of the same drawing had to be produced to bring in the motion effect in them. A very famous example of such hard work is of Winsor McCay. He was and still is known as the father of animated cartoons. MacCay was a fine hard working man and used to make his animations by himself alone. He did not use to ask for the help of the others and used to animate his films nearly single handedly by himself, from the foundation to the completion each cartoon was made by him and him alone (Crandol, n.pag) McCay was a fine animator and took his time to make his animations appear distinctive creative perspectives. He sometimes used to spend more than one year just to complete a five minute cartoon animation. This time duration was too long for the expanding viewers of the cinema world and thus the modern studios of animation came in to being. Walt Disney was the first animator in the whole world who added the effect of sound in his animations of Steamboat Willie in 1928. Later computerization changed the whole view of this industry. Toy Story that was released in 1995 was the first animated movie that was completely made on computers and this was done by the cooperation of Pixar Animation Studio and Walt Disney Animation Production (The Significance of Animation, n.pag). The production started at 1993 and the movie was released in November 1995 The movie was a hit