Friday, May 31, 2019
History of the Port of Long BeachThe San Pedro Bay breakwater began construction in 1899. This was to facilitate the structure of the Port of Los Angeles. It served well as a breakwater for both fashions. In 1909 the Los Angeles Dock and Terminal Company purchased about 800 acres of marshes and mudflats at the mouth of the Los Angeles River. On June 24, 1911, in a grant from the State of California, the City of Long Beach was given the tideland areas in trust for the people of the state. The theory behind the tidelands was that although they were mostly change water, they could be dredged to make deep water. This provided as much fill as the port needed to make additional land and piers. The Tidelands Trust restricted the usage of the land. It also restricted what could be done with monies received from the different ventures allowed on the property. The money was only to be used for improving or maintaining harbor trading and navigation, or for marine recreation or fisheries. By 1916 the Los Angeles Dock and Terminal Company declared bankruptcy and turned over all operations of the port to the City of Long Beach. The city then completed the dredging projects that were already underway including a channel and a turning basin. The following year a perpetration was formed to oversee harbor operations. It was the first Board of Harbor Commissioners. In 1924 voters of Long Beach approved a five million dollar alignment for use in improving the inner harbor area as well as beginning development of the outer harbor areas. The goal was to capture a deep water port and by 1926, the Port of Long Beach did exactly that. The port handled eight hundred twenty-one ships and imported or exported a total of more that one million tons of cargo. Shortly thereafter, in 1928, construction began on new facilities to include new Piers A and B. At the same time, Pier 1 was reconstructed and a new transit building was completed on it. The port then renamed Pier 1, Municipal Wharf. however construction of the San Pedro Bay breakwater began in 1932. The extension was to be three and one-half miles by authorization of the Federal River and Harbor Act of 1930. In 1936 oil color was discovered in the harbor. The good thing about finding oil in the harbor was that the port then had a sizeable amount of superior to invest back into itself.
When thinking about kind work, there are different avenues that a thespian foundation explore in this vast field. Because a social workers job is multifaceted, workers can not only integrate themselves in an already created avenue, but can also tailor a field, specifically for a need in the community. Looking at the many different fields in the area of social work, the area of Social Workers in moral Health facilities and outpatient clinics stands out as an area of depth and interest. This field is important because it allows social workers to play an integral berth in assisting patients, some of who have been kept in large inpatient facilities for vast periods of time, to become functioning and active members of society, as they deal with the task of managing their specific mental illness. It is stated on the NASW occupation profile that Social workers employed with mental health clinics can have a range of job functions depending on their specific roles. Possible job title s include, but are not limited to, clinical social worker, licensed clinical social worker, mental health specialist, clinician, therapist, counselor, managing director or case manager (NASW p.2).In 1963, The Community Mental Health Act came into existence. This act was created to provide federal funding for community mental health centers in the United States. The CMHA gave money to states, in order for them to create local mental health centers. These health centers would be spearheaded by the National Institute of Mental Health. The purpose of the CMHA was to provide community-based care, as an alternative to institutionalization, which previously was the most popular and expensive answer to assisting those with mental illness. These different clinics and faci... ...se, and to learn how to utilize non traditional methods to fulfill a therapeutic accomplishment with patients.The educational requirements to work in this particular field are geared to not only be a assistant to patients struggling with adjusting, but a therapeutic help as well. Social workers of course have to obtain a bachelors degree, as well as seemly any state certifications necessary. Many social workers also obtain a masters degree, in order to become licensed counselors, which can be essential when dealings in this field.Works CitedKim, H., Ji, J., & Kao, D. (2011). Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers A Three-Year Longitudinal Study. Social Work, 56(3), 258-268. Gibelman, M. (2005). What social workers do. (2ndEdition). Washington, DC NASW Press.http//workforce.socialworkers.org/studies/profiles/Mental%20Health%20Clinics.pdf
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The short story Girl written by Jamaica Kincaid is a catchs compilation of advice, skills, and life experience to her female child. The mother believes that her offer of practical and helpful guidance willing assist her daughter in pose a proper woman, and gaining a put to deathing life and respectable office in the confederation. Posed against the mothers sincere concern for her daughters forthcoming is Sir Walters superficial affection to his daughters in the novel survey written by Jane Austen. Due to his detailed attention for appearance and social rank, Sir Walter has been negligent to his daughters interests and fails to fulfill his responsibility as a father. Throughout both literary works, the use of language and tone towards persuasive endeavors reveals the difference in family dynamics and the success of thinking on the characters transformation.The mothers good care for her daughter in girl is displayed through her imperative affirmations. The mother decides to transfer her internal knowledge and life experience to her daughter in send to shape her daughters behavior from a young age. She gives out detailed instruction on how to sew a button, how to hem a lay out when the hem coming down to how to iron a khaki shirt so that it does not have a crease (Kincaid). Although heming a gazump is not a difficult chore, the mother emphasizes the its importance since she understands that the appearance of clothing glints a womans character. Because domestic skills serve as a touchstone for womens competence and self-worth, the daughters inability to take care of her clothes will indicate her lack of interest in household thing and organizational skills. Through these advice, the mother highlights the importance of house... ...an only find true happiness in marriage with someone who shares similar manners and treasure large numbers qualities over their look and status. This is when Annes sensibility allows her to disregard her familys per suasion and become determined to fulfill her have it off with Wentworth. The persuasive attempts in both literary works produce different results. The effectiveness of the mothers guidance to her daughter is questioned since the girl cannot recognize the essence of her mothers lesson. disdain that, the mothers beneficial instruction serves as a standard for the daughter to reflect her future behaviors in order to live up to the communitys expectations. On the other hand, Annes value of candid expression and lasting family relationship dissuades her from obliging to her familys meaningless duty to place her love and interest above to experience fulfillment in life. Persuasion Written by Jane Austen Essay examples -- motherhood, jamaicaThe short story Girl written by Jamaica Kincaid is a mothers compilation of advice, skills, and life experience to her daughter. The mother believes that her offer of practical and helpful guidance will assist her daughter in becoming a proper woman, and gaining a fulfilling life and respectable status in the community. Posed against the mothers sincere concern for her daughters future is Sir Walters superficial affection to his daughters in the novel Persuasion written by Jane Austen. Due to his detailed attention for appearance and social rank, Sir Walter has been negligent to his daughters interests and fails to fulfill his responsibility as a father. Throughout both literary works, the use of language and tone towards persuasive endeavors reveals the difference in family dynamics and the success of persuasion on the characters transformation.The mothers genuine care for her daughter in girl is displayed through her imperative instructions. The mother decides to transfer her domestic knowledge and life experience to her daughter in order to shape her daughters behavior from a young age. She gives out detailed instruction on how to sew a button, how to hem a dress when the hem coming down to how to iron a khak i shirt so that it does not have a crease (Kincaid). Although heming a dress is not a difficult chore, the mother emphasizes the its importance since she understands that the appearance of clothing reflects a womans character. Because domestic skills serve as a measurement for womens competence and self-worth, the daughters inability to take care of her clothes will indicate her lack of interest in household affair and organizational skills. Through these advice, the mother highlights the importance of house... ...an only find true happiness in marriage with someone who shares similar manners and treasure peoples qualities over their look and status. This is when Annes sensibility allows her to disregard her familys persuasion and become determined to fulfill her love with Wentworth. The persuasive attempts in both literary works produce different results. The effectiveness of the mothers guidance to her daughter is questioned since the girl cannot recognize the essence of her moth ers lesson. Despite that, the mothers beneficial instruction serves as a standard for the daughter to reflect her future behaviors in order to live up to the communitys expectations. On the other hand, Annes value of candid expression and lasting relationship dissuades her from obliging to her familys meaningless duty to place her love and interest above to experience fulfillment in life.
Ecstasy Greater Affects on Women?Ecstasy Are Women More Susceptible To Brain Damage? The rave scene. Its suitable a popular way to kick-back for high school and college kids. Everyone is doing it at parties. Unfortunately, this party isnt all fun and games. Drugs are prevalent at raves. Ecstasy, one of the nearly popular doses abused there is like the tiny insects that arent widely feared, but can be deadly. It looks small and innocent, but its more harmful than you may think. Ecstasy is actually C11H15NO2, which means. New studies show women may be at an even greater risk to prolonged effects of the do drugs ecstasy- 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It is commonly cognize that ecstasy produces great levels of serotonin. These chemicals are released in the brain, generating a false sense of happiness, self-esteem, and increase sexual drive. Prolonged exposure to the drug can result in a lack of serotonin altogether, leading to depression and many other mental illnesses. Ecsta sy is commonly classified as a stimulant. Ecstasy is most often found in pill form, although it is also exchange as a powder. Imprints on the pill classify them into brand names. Frequent users are known to buy from the same brand just like most all consumers prefer one brand of milk or orange juice. The drug is easy to find and can range in prices from $20 - $50 per tablet. Since demand at the club scene is so high, buyers are sometimes sold imitation X, a drug that could contain any number of substances. Any other variant of Ecstasy could also be found with a mixture of drugs. Ecstasy is called MAMA, X, XTC, Adam, The love drug, and many other names still being created. (www.ecstasy.org) Dutch studies grouped participants into three categories of users moderate, heavy, and ex-users. Moderate use is classified as less than 50 tablets heavy is more than 50 tablets and ex-users were reportedly off ecstasy for at least one-year before the study. Users had to abstain from all drug use for 3 weeks before the study was conducted. The three groups were also categorized by gender and age. The study revealed that MAMA use might result in lowered levels in the density of serotonin transporters in the brain. It also suggests that the degree of those levels was partially dependent on sex. Moderate users of both male and female participants did not seem to lead to a large reduction in the production of serotonin.
Daisy Buchanan of The Great Gatsby and Brett Ashley of The Sun Also Rises Written right after the publication of Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby, Hemingways The Sun Also Rises is obviously influenced in many ways. The most obvious of Fitzgeralds influence is manifested in Hemingways portrayal of his heroine, Brett Ashley. Numerous critics have noted and discussed the similarities between Brett and Daisy Buchanan, and rightly so but the ii women also have fundamental differences. Compared to Daisy, Brett is a more rounded, complex character, and Hemingway has treated her with more sympathy than Fitzgerald has with Daisy. Some similarities between Brett Ashley and Daisy Buchanan include their physical beauty, their extravagant/ pretentious life-style, and their unhappy marriages. However, their most important similarity is the destructive influence they have on their suitors. Daisy attracts Jay Gatsby with her beauty--not only her physical appearance, but also the entire carefree, comfortable, luxurious lifestyle Gatsby was overwhelmingly aware of the youth and mystery that wealth imprisons and preserves, of the freshness of many clothes and of Daisy, gleaming like silver, safe and proud above the hot struggles of the scurvy (157). To Gatsby the rich life is temptingly desirable because it was equaled to Daisy herself. Her life far detached from the sweaty hard struggling seems to hold as much enchanted beauty as she holds for Gatsby. He falls in love with that beauty, and Daisy has become his one and only goal and dream in life. With this, Fitzgerald is putting the blame for Gatsbys fall--his indulgence in the ill-use dream, and his wrong choice of means to achieve his end--on Daisy. But t... ... S. Brett and Her Lovers. Brett Ashley. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York Chelsea House Publishers, 1991. 105-122. Martin, Wendy. Brett Ashley as New Woman in The Sun Also Rises. New Essays on The Sun Also Rises. Ed. Linda Wagner-Martin. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1987. 65-82. Works Consulted Hemingway, Ernest. The Unpublished Opening of The Sun Also Rises. (5-8). Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Letter to Ernest Hemingway (June 1926). (8). Whitlow, Roger. Bitches and Other Simplistic Assumptions. (148-156). Cohen, Milton A. Circe and Her Swine. (157-165). Bloom, Harold. Brett Ashley. New York Chelsea House Publishers, 1991. McCay, Mary A. Fitzgeralds Women Beyond pass Dreams. (311-324). Fleischmann, Fritz, ed. American Novelists Revisited Essays in Feminist Criticism. Boston G. K. Hall & Co., 1982.
U.S. History - GrechAtomic Bombs Dropped on Japan, Justified?On August 6th and 9th of 1945 U.S. bombers dropped atomic bombs on theJapanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, causing utter destruction and some deaths.These bombs were dropped as the Pacific battles of World War II were coming to an end.Soon after Japan surrendered, ending the war. But, was the use of atomic warfarenecessary? Was it too harsh and cruel to the Japanese? The first question was whether ornot to drop a bomb. The effects of atomic warfare had not been known and studied, but itwas apparent that it would be a good tool in ending the war. The first bomb did appearnecessary to ending the war. It would put Japan in check to bring a quick finish to thefighting, saving many lives, as well as prevent the Russians from joining the Pacific War.The second on Nagasaki, however was obviously not. It was handled foolishly, in that theJapanese were not allowed enough time to surrender and it seemed like a big sickexper iment. The United States of America was justify in dropping the atomic bomb onthe island of Hiroshima, but not justified in doing the same to Nagasaki.Throughout the war scientists had been involved in the ill-famed ManhattanProject, the production of the atomic bomb. In three years the U.S. was ready to test thefirst atomic bomb, and did in Alamogordo, New M...
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Its Time to Crack Down on Police Brutality Police brutality has become a widespread and persistent chore in the United States. Police brutality occurs when a law enforcement stumbleicers use excessive or unlawful force while on or off duty. Established A Pattern of Abuse is an article in The Humanist, written by Barbara Dority. She states, Thousands of individual complaints are reported each year and local government pay out millions of dollars to vicitms in damages and lawsuits (5). Dority also describes some of the types of abuse that officers thrust d sensation. They have beaten and shot unresisting suspects they have misused batons, chemicals sprays, and electro-shock weapons and they have injured or killed people by placing them in dangerous restraint holds (5). There have been many cases throughout the country where police officers have been utmost too brutal and someone has been injured or killed. There have been many hundreds of cases like this and many people are wonder ing when it will end up or even if it will end. Most citizens of the United States agree that it is wrong and needs to be reduced if not eliminated. So it all comes down to one question what can be done about it? Unfortunately, prosecution has not been sufficiently effective in stopping the brutality. Police forces throughout the U.S. should be make more(prenominal) accountable for their actions. The greatest problem that has developed from police brutality is that the guilty officers are not punished, which leads to another incident of abuse. Authorities should give more effective punishment to officers who abuse citizens. Such punishment would help prevent abuse from happening again and again. In an anonymous Economist article c... ...gainst clean York cops since 1993, only 180 officers have been disciplined, most of them with just a lecture or the loss of a vacation day (26). Officers need to be handle like citizens when it comes to that type of crime. They should be sent t o jail and just saying sorry should not let them off the hook. They may be law officers, notwithstanding they are not gods and they should have to face the consequences of their actions as all good citizens must. Sources Cited Dority, Barbara. Established A Pattern of Abuse. The Humanist. 59.1 (Jan. 1999)5. Lacayo, Richard. Good Cop, Bad Cop. Time. 150.9 (1 Sept. 1997)26-31. Lewis, Edward. Policing the Police. Essence. 28.7 (Nov. 1997)14. Anonymous. Excessive Force. The Economist 348.8076 (11 July 1998) 32.
In my opinion, the almost influential time period in American history since 1945 would have to be the 1960s. So much was going on in America during this time period. Such as the civil rights movement, the counterculture, the war and so much more. I am going to focus on the counterculture because I think that out of all of the commotion that was going on in the 1960s, the counterculture has the most lasting affects and the most came out of it that we still have in our society today. They shaped music, politics, and the culture of America. They had fresh ideas that most were scared to act on or did not believe in. They had open minds and wanted everyone else to try to as well. Your mind is like a parachute, it doesnt work unless its open. -Jordan Maxwell The counterculture was so important to America because it tiltd norms of the proterozoic 1900s to the norms of today. The definition of the Counterculture is as follows. The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-e stablishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United States and United Kingdom and spread throughout much of the Western military man between the early 1960s and the early 1970s. The movement gained momentum as the African-American Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and became revolutionary with the expansion of the US governments commodious military intervention in Vietnam. (Previous Quote taken from an online source) During the counterculture movement, peoples lifestyles started to change. People started dressing differently and acting differently. Peoples clothes transformed. They changed from parti-color tailored styles into looser fitting and much more revealing especially for women in public. Men started growing their hair out and... ...id, The thing the sixties did was to show us the possibilities and the responsibility that we all had. It wasnt the answer. It just gave us a glimpse of the possibility. John Lennon that is a perfect example of h ow people felt and why they wanted to change so much. As you can see, the 1960s was a turning point for America. Not only did we break free of social norms in society provided also the generation fought for what they thought was right. Yes maybe they were looked at a little bit strangely but in the end the ended up ever-changing America and molding it into the place that we all call home today. If someone thinks that love and peace is a clich that must have been left behind in the Sixties, thats his problem. Love and peace are eternal. John Lennon That is why, I believe the 1960s were the most influential years of American history since 1945.
Increasing Student Achievement through Preventing School Violence Introduction School force is any type of rage, whether it is a simple threat on another student or a schooling shooting, that happens in the school environment. Student doing is the efforts made by the student to work hard in the classroom. The purpose of this research paper is to examine how school violence impacts student achievement. It would seem that school violence would have a negative impact on student achievement. If this is the case then we need to do what we can to prevent violence in schools. Technology can be used to help control school violence. Information on School Violence Violence in our schools has become an change magnitude problem. Within the United States alone, there have been approximately twenty-two school shootings since 1978 (Cruz, 2002, p. 53-54). Eighteen of the twenty-two occurred during the 1990s. It has been approximated that a school crime occurs every six seconds (Day, 1996 , p. 9). We moldiness ask ourselves why school violence has flourished. When we try to answer this question, we tend to blame society. Violence in the media seems to be the number one cause for violence in the school. However, society and media are not the only things to blame. There are so many reasons for why school violence has become increasingly more than popular, but there is one thing that can be said for sure is that our students need to be able to learn and work in a safe environment. The need to create a school environment that is free of violence and drugs has become a public priority (Flannery, 2000). People need to pull in together as a community and help in the fight against school violence. We need to give students... ...zine/vault/A2857.cfm 24. The site describes how we can use applied science to help prevent school violence. The article discusses some of the technologies being used to prevent violence in the school system. Also, the site gives a list of shipway to assess the technologies being used as a solution to prevent violence.25. Thompson, R. (2000). Promoting Academic Achievement and Safe Schools. Retrieved April 24, 2004 from http//www.nationalcenter.org/P21NVThompsonViolence600.html26. The author discusses ways of trying to promote academic achievement and safer schools. 27. The author also realizes that the only way to make sure that students succeed is to make sure that their schools are safe.28. U.S. Department of Health and Human go (2002). School Violence Prevention. Retrieved April 25, 2004 from http//www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/schoolviolence/
Modern Times Boredom breeds blood and poison. In todays society, it fails to surprise us that children plow to wedge to the messages within music, television, and magazines. Such media portrayals tend to then set a model for how we develop our behavioral patterns. However, once a trend grows old or expose of style, a strong sense of apathy results, if only for even a split second. In the long tally, when such children feel out of side and their emotions run them rather than their minds, chaos results. We have seen several examples of this natural proclivity to rebel against authority in todays world take a find at Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris of Littleton, Colorado. The media definitely exists as our voice of reason when taking into account incidents such as this for our entire lives, it is all we have k instantern. The mindset of the nineteenth atomic number 6 Romanticists seems unbelievably similar to that of the youths in America. Both time periods ultimately en ded up indirectly encouraging ones naturally mystical desire to revolt against the rules and conventions of society.Romanticism placed a major emphasis on reason through the arts. Literature, for instance, created the classic hero a mysterious, melancholy work up who mat up out of step with the world, thereof yearning for freedom. Such writing the media determined and verified this approach and definition of life. In the nineteenth century, Lord Byron, superior Huge, and Sir Walter Scott, among others, turn up to be responsible for the promotion of such instincts toward rebellion. The arts during this time period certainly conveyed incredibly violent energy and emotion as well, thus calling for the defense of the rights of man. Since hypocrisy seemed to engulf humanity, a strong emphasis was placed on ones imagination. Was the test then the same as at present? Certainly Both time periods utilized the power of the hero to survive death and despair the creative spirit always seemed to prevail.Overall, everything then and now revolves just about emotion and our natural ability to distinguish right from wrong. It only seems sane to allow one to make his or her own judgements based on his or her mistakes.Modern Times Free Essay WriterModern Times Boredom breeds blood and poison. In todays society, it fails to surprise us that children continue to cling to the messages within music, television, and magazines. Such media portrayals tend to then set a model for how we develop our behavioral patterns. However, once a trend grows old or out of style, a strong sense of apathy results, if only for even a split second. In the long run, when such children feel out of place and their emotions run them rather than their minds, chaos results. We have seen several examples of this natural desire to rebel against authority in todays world take a look at Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris of Littleton, Colorado. The media definitely exists as our voice of r eason when taking into account incidents such as this for our entire lives, it is all we have known. The mindset of the nineteenth century Romanticists seems unbelievably similar to that of the youths in America. Both time periods ultimately ended up indirectly encouraging ones naturally hidden desire to revolt against the rules and conventions of society.Romanticism placed a major emphasis on reason through the arts. Literature, for instance, created the classic hero a mysterious, melancholy figure who felt out of step with the world, thus yearning for freedom. Such writing the media determined and verified this approach and definition of life. In the nineteenth century, Lord Byron, Victor Huge, and Sir Walter Scott, among others, proved to be responsible for the promotion of such instincts toward rebellion. The arts during this time period certainly conveyed incredibly violent energy and emotion as well, thus calling for the defense of the rights of man. Since hypocrisy se emed to engulf humanity, a strong emphasis was placed on ones imagination. Was the test then the same as now? Certainly Both time periods utilized the power of the hero to survive death and despair the creative spirit always seemed to prevail.Overall, everything then and now revolves around emotion and our natural ability to distinguish right from wrong. It only seems sane to allow one to make his or her own judgements based on his or her mistakes.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Capital punishment is used to bring skilfulice to the crimes of murderers in our society, but is it really just? Studies show that the death penalty is cruel, morally wrong, and sometimes painful. It robs the bend and the public of their humanity and undermines the value of life. The public should come to realize the cruelty of this law, and this form of punishment should be abolished from the governments criminal justice system.Philosophers first began to question the justice of capital punishment in the eighteenth century. Italian criminologist Cesare Beccaria condemned capital punishment as a grossly inhumane deterrent to crime, and modern critics argue that all cleansing is wrong and can never be justified, whether it is done by a criminal or the government. When the state executes a criminal while saying murder is wrong, it denies the value of human life (Capital Punishment, 17). They cannot teach that killing is wrong by killing (Deacons of Paterson, 51). All human lives are equally valuable despite chosen moral behavior, but some people think that only the lives of the morally poverty-stricken are truly human. Is there a soulfulness out there who is truly morally pure and innocent? Under this type of thinking, any person could easily be put into a subhuman category that is condemned. Is there a clear distinction between the two? America was founded on the article of faith that each individual is an end in himself. Killing these criminals contradicts the highest moral end of civil society the human life (Bidinotto, 23). The taking of life is the ultimate viable waste (24).Today, Americans are in search of a tame, reliable, or perfect way of carrying out the death penalty. Methods that have been used were public hangings a... ...A Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2000. 31.Holy Bible. Holman Christian Standard Bible. Nashville Serendipity House Publishers, 2007.Johnson, Robert. Execution is Inhumane. Capital Punishment. Ed. Mary E. Williams. San Die go, CA Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2000. 42-49.Quotations by Author Mahatma Gandhi. The Quotations Page. Revenge Has No Place in the judge System. Humanism by Joe. The Permanent Deacons of Paterson, New Jersey. Capital Punishment Undermines the Sacredness of Life. Capital Punishment. Ed. Mary E. Williams. San Diego, CA Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2000. 50-52.Zobel, Hiller B. The Undying Problem of the Death Penalty. The Death Penalty. Ed. Hayley R. Mitchell. San Diego, CA Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2001. 33.
The purpose of this paper is to explain using Bowens family systems framework, howan individuals aim of differentiation and dread influence family relationships andstrengths. Bowens family systems theory addresses how patterns of interaction in thefamily of origin influence a couples interaction in the next generation with theirchildren. Bowen describes the differences in family operation, by the degree of worryor the degree of differentiation within the family. Bowens definition of differentiationof egotism as a persons ability to differentiate intellectual functioning ( thinking ), fromfeelings. The level of differentiation of self is determined in the family of origin. Whenan individual has an change magnitude level of differentiation, he has a lightheaded sense of his ownidentity. A persons intellectual functioning helps behavior to be rational, lessimpulsive, more independent and autonomous. These individuals have good troublesolving techniques, and are less influenced by others. As differentiation of self increases,levels of anxiety decrease. As anxiety goes up, differentiation goes down. A childsdifferentiation of self develops around an emotional system. With a high level ofanxiety, functioning is impulsive, rather than rational. Individuals with a low level ofdifferentiation, develop dependent and emotionally fused relationships. Theseindividuals are more dependent on others. Their sense of self is clouded, and they dontdevelop a clear identity. Their feelings and thoughts are fused, and they express apseudoself rather than their true opinions. Families whose members have increased levels of differentiation and decreasedlevels of anxiety, they will be rational and cognitive in their shipway of relating to otherfamily members, and more effective with problem solving skills. They will try to clearlycommunicate their views or beliefs. They will have healthier relationships. Anindividual with an increased level of differentiated self , will allow their child to be theirown person, and express himself openly. This leads to a well adjusted independent adolescent, with flexible problem solving skills, and an increased level of goalorientation. Families with decreased levels of differentiation and increased anxiety with in the
Capital punishment is used to bring justice to the crimes of murderers in our society, but is it actually just? Studies show that the death penalty is cruel, chastely wrong, and sometimes painful. It robs the criminal and the public of their humanity and undermines the value of life. The public should come to realize the cruelty of this law, and this take a leak of punishment should be abolished from the governments criminal justice system.Philosophers first began to question the justice of capital punishment in the eighteenth century. Italian criminologist Cesare Beccaria condemned capital punishment as a grossly inhumane deterrent to crime, and modern critics argue that all killing is wrong and can never be justified, whether it is done by a criminal or the government. When the state executes a criminal while saying murder is wrong, it denies the value of human life (Capital Punishment, 17). They cannot teach that killing is wrong by killing (Deacons of Paterson, 51). A ll human lives are equally valuable despite chosen moral behavior, but some people think that only the lives of the morally innocent are truly human. Is there a person out there who is truly morally pure and innocent? Under this type of thinking, every person could easily be put into a subhuman category that is condemned. Is there a clear distinction between the two? America was founded on the principle that each individual is an end in himself. Killing these criminals contradicts the highest moral end of civil society the human life (Bidinotto, 23). The taking of life is the ultimate possible waste (24).Today, Americans are in search of a tame, reliable, or perfect way of carrying out the death penalty. Methods that have been used were public hangings a... ...A Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2000. 31. holy Bible. Holman Christian Standard Bible. Nashville Serendipity House Publishers, 2007.Johnson, Robert. Execution is Inhumane. Capital Punishment. Ed. Mary E. Williams. San Diego, CA Gre enhaven Press, Inc., 2000. 42-49.Quotations by Author Mahatma Gandhi. The Quotations Page. Revenge Has No Place in the Justice System. Humanism by Joe. The Permanent Deacons of Paterson, New Jersey. Capital Punishment Undermines the Sacredness of Life. Capital Punishment. Ed. Mary E. Williams. San Diego, CA Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2000. 50-52.Zobel, Hiller B. The Undying Problem of the Death Penalty. The Death Penalty. Ed. Hayley R. Mitchell. San Diego, CA Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2001. 33.
The purpose of this paper is to explain using Bowens family systems framework, howan individuals direct of differentiation and trouble influence family relationships andstrengths. Bowens family systems theory addresses how patterns of interaction in thefamily of origin influence a couples interaction in the next generation with theirchildren. Bowen describes the differences in family mathematical operation, by the degree of anxietyor the degree of differentiation within the family. Bowens definition of differentiationof self-importance as a persons ability to differentiate intellectual functioning ( thinking ), fromfeelings. The level of differentiation of self is determined in the family of origin. Whenan individual has an increase level of differentiation, he has a crystallise sense of his ownidentity. A persons intellectual functioning helps behavior to be rational, lessimpulsive, more independent and autonomous. These individuals have good riddlesolving techniques, and are less influenced by others. As differentiation of self increases,levels of anxiety decrease. As anxiety goes up, differentiation goes down. A childsdifferentiation of self develops around an emotional system. With a high level ofanxiety, functioning is impulsive, rather than rational. Individuals with a low level ofdifferentiation, develop dependent and emotionally fused relationships. Theseindividuals are more dependent on others. Their sense of self is clouded, and they dontdevelop a clear identity. Their feelings and thoughts are fused, and they express apseudoself rather than their true opinions. Families whose members have increased levels of differentiation and decreasedlevels of anxiety, they will be rational and cognitive in their slipway of relating to otherfamily members, and more effective with problem solving skills. They will try to clearlycommunicate their views or beliefs. They will have healthier relationships. Anindividual with an increased level of differentiated s elf , will allow their child to be theirown person, and express himself openly. This leads to a well adjusted independent adolescent, with flexible problem solving skills, and an increased level of goalorientation. Families with decreased levels of differentiation and increased anxiety with in the
Monday, May 27, 2019
Analyze the responses to TWO of the following to Secretary of State John Hays view that the Spanish the Statesn warfare was a splendid little fight William Jennings Bryan, Theodore Roosevelt, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Emilio Aguinaldo When Secretary of State John Hay stated that the Spanish American War was a splendid little war, he received mixed responses from people such as William Jennings Bryan, Theodore Roosevelt, Alfred Thayer Mahan, and Emilio Aguinaldo. Some people of the Philippines, especially the countryalistic leader Emilio Aguinaldo, dis hold with Hays statement.They were upset that they were first being denied independence from Spain, and now the United States of America. However, even having fought in the Spanish-American War along berth the Americans, Aguinaldo led bands of second fighters against the U. S. It took three years, and numerous causalities to end the revolt. Theodore Roosevelt, on the other hand, saw potential in the lands controlled by Spain. He ordered a fleet to the Philippines. The American overhaul destroyed the Spanish Fleet. Contrary to the beliefs of Theodore Roosevelt, William Jennings Bryan viciously attacked the idea of American imperialism.He believed that imperialism was wrong, and the United States should stay out of fighting wars for conquest. While many Americans too, questioned imperialism, they saw the new territory, including the Philippines, acquired during the war as an accomplishment. Last but not least, Alfred Thayer Mahan believed that a strong naval power would crucial if a country wanted to become the finest, economically and militarily. A strong array presence would open contradictory markets which would lead the United States to become a world power.William Jennings Bryan vigorously attacked the growth of American Imperialism. One cocksure consequence of the Spanish American war was its effect on the way both Americans and Europeans thought about the United States as a formidable military power Discus s whether or not US foreign policy from 1890-1914 was principally guided by economic motives. The period after the Civil War saw the development of a booming economy fueled by the industrialization of America, which created the path for a major change in U. S goody policies with the rest of the world.Rather than being an isolated country and keeping with the advice of George Washington to stay neutral concerning any European affairs, the United States became an imperialistic and world power with territories extending crossways the pacific and very active in European affairs. U. S foreign policy from 1890-1920 was principally guided by economic motives. One of the motives why the U. S foreign policy was principally guided by economic ambition was to protect American interests saved in other countries.Another motive why the U.S foreign policy was principally guided by economic ambition was because the U. S needed new markets on which to sell their surplus of rise and produced goods . One of the motives why the U. S foreign policy was principally guided by economic ambition was because the U. S needed new markets on which to sell their surplus of farm and produced goods. The blessed American soil was mass-producing crops and industries were thriving in production of American goods the markets in the United States were over flowing with goods and the United States needed to extend their bargain to other countries markets.The four biggest imperialistic powers of the time were Great Britain, France, Germany, and soon to be the United States were all competing to get the advantages of the markets in China, and since China was dealing with their own struggles deal corruption, and bad leadership, many countries were taking advantage of the economic gains in the Chinese markets unfairly. Secretary of state John Hay proposed an Open Door policy in China which would guarantee that all nations have a fair chance in the Chinese markets.He proposed this because the Unite d States was still trying to prove itself and if all the countries authentic this policy the United States would ensure having access to the profitable markets. As the U. S economy grew so did ambition and a sense of great nationalism in the United States and the public was calling for more. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson toward Latin America Both Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson had utilized their own foreign policies toward Latin America that differed from another.Theodore Roosevelt proposed the aggressive, Big-Stick delicacy in dealing with Latin America, whereas Wilson operated using moral diplomacy as his way of managing foreign affairs. The idea behind Roosevelts Big-Stick Policy was speaking restfully but carrying a big stick, meaning that negotiations should conclude peacefully, but rivals should be threatened with the military. President Roosevelt had made several attempts to build the United States reputation as a world power. His policy, however, was unpopular amongst many for breaking the customary non-involvement policy in international politics. T.R was enthusiastic to begin the construction of a canal through the Isthmus of Panama, so the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901 was passed. This allowed the United States to begin to dig the canal without British involvement. Woodrow Wilson on the other hand, respected other nations rights and supported the spread of democracy. Wilson had sent troops over and arranged an arms embargo with the Mexican government. When these troops were detained, he had them occupy Veracruz and war seemed at hand(predicate) until the Countries of Argentina, Chile and Brazil mediated in the affair. Wilson had also proposed the Johns Act of 1916 which granted U. S.citizenship to all the inhabitants in Puerto Rico while providing limited self-government. In addition to this, Wilson unplowed a supply of marines in Nicaragua and ordered U. S. troops into Haiti in 1915 a nd the Dominican Republic in 1916.He argued that such intervention was necessary to maintain stability in the region and protect the Panama Canal. Assess the importance of TWO of the following in the US decision to harbour war against Spain in 1898 yellow journalism, change posture of the Maine, US business interests, Cuban revolution Americas short war with Spain in 1898 was the nations first step on the pathway to becoming a world power.The U. S. advantage brought with it the unintended possession of the Philippines and a vested interest in the politics of the Pacific region that would ultimately lead to conflict with Japan. As an immediate outcome of the war, America found itself embroiled in an insurgency in the Philippines that closely mimicked the conflict in Vietnam over 60 years later. Cuba, a Spanish colony, had been in lawlessness since 1895. The brutal Spanish response turned American sympathies to the Cuban insurgents.The US Battleship Maine arrived in Havana Harbor in January 1898 with a dual cathexis to protect American interests and present the Spanish with a show of force. At 940 PM on the evening of February 15, an explosion ripped the forward remove quickly sending the ship to the bottom of the harbor, killing deuce hundred sixty-six of the 345 crew members. Investigations started immediately. A US Naval Board of Inquiry attributed the drop down to an external explosion a conclusion interpreted by many as referring to a mine placed beneath the ship. The finger of blame pointed to Spanish treachery.An anti-Spanish press particularly the Yellow Journalism of the Hearst and Pulitzer newspapers enflamed American public opinion and raised it to a war-fever pitch. Congress clamored for action. President McKinley reluctantly succumbed to pressure and asked Congress to declare war on April 21. Congress obliged on April 25, 1898. The war lasted only 3 months and cost the U. S. about 400 killed or wounded. The United States gained the Philippi nes, Puerto Rico and Guam and emerged as a power to be reckoned with on the world stage. Cuba gained independence from Spain.For Spain it was a humiliating defeat. Both her Atlantic and Pacific fleets were sent to the bottom of the sea and with them went Spains prestigiousness as a world power. In what ways did the United States relationship with Japan become more competitive after 1900? In the first two decades of the twentieth century, the relationship between the United States and Japan was marked by increasing tension and corresponding attempts to use diplomacy to reduce the threat of conflict.Each side had territory and interests in Asia that they were concerned the other might threaten. U. S.treatment of Nipponese immigrants, and competition for economic and commercial opportunities in China also heightened tensions. At the equivalent time, each countrys territorial claims in the Pacific formed the basis for several agreements between the two nations, as each government se ek to protect its own strategic and economic interests. Tensions rose over Japanese actions in northeast China and immigration to the United States. In 1905, the Japanese started to contribute more formal control over South Manchuria by forcing China to give Japan ownership rights to the South Manchurian Railway.The Japanese used this outset to make further inroads into northeast China, causing the Roosevelt Administration concern that this violated the ideals of free enterprise and the preservation of Chinas territorial integrity. Simultaneously, leading Japanese officials expressed frustration with the treatment of Japanese immigrants in the United States. A U. S. -Japanese treaty signed in 1894 had guaranteed the Japanese the right to immigrate to the United States, and to eff the same rights in the country as U. S. citizens.In 1906, however, the San Francisco Board of Education enacted a measure to send Japanese and Chinese children to segregated schools. The Government of Ja pan was outrage by this policy, claiming that it violated the 1894 treaty. In a series of notes exchanged between late 1907 and early 1908, known collectively as the Gentlemens Agreement, the U. S. Government agreed to pressure the San Francisco authorities to withdraw the measure, and the Japanese Government promised to restrict the immigration of laborers to the United States.
Literacy has become an historic consideration in the field of education. To address literacy problems, educators (Strickland, n. d. Frey et al. , 2004) map the equalizer Based Literacy Program, which specific bothy stresses the use of varied approaches to teaching literacy. According to calcium Department of Education (as cited in Frey et al. , 2004), the term dimensiond literacy originated in California in 1996. This was made into a curriculum in response to low recitation scores of learners on a national examination. It lifts the concept that reading and paternity must go hand in hand to promote literacy.In contrast to using a specific approach to teaching literacy such as Phonics come out or Whole Language Approach, brace Based Literacy combines these approaches and more in order to ensure meeting the finish of literacy. Believing that every disciple has the expertness to learn how to read and draw up, Balance Based Literacy allows students to achieve a certain lite racy level through a combination of approaches relevant to their ability. The literacy stick established with balance allows students to plan their own personal progress, and attempt new techniques in learning, with the support of teachers and resources.Based on Frey et al. (2004), many authors believe that combining a balance of teacher-directed instruction and student-centered activities is the or so effective way of teaching literacy. In addition, Asselin, and Pearson (as cited in Frey) believe that Balance Based Literacy must include elements of community, authenticity, integration, optimism, simulationing, and student control and connectedness. Activities incorporated in Balance Based Literacy include reading and make-up aloud, sh ard reading and writing, guided reading and writing, and independent reading and writing. According to Mrs.Stewarts Kindergarten Web site, one model of Balance Based Literacy being employed nowadays is the Literacy Collaborative Model. This compre hensive model is designed to provide a school-wide approach to improve reading and writing. This model includes a wide range of individual, small-group, and large-group reading and writing activities (Literacy Collaborative Web site). One particle of Balance Based Literacy is indication and make-up Aloud. In Reading Aloud, students learn the language through acquisition. It supports the idea that language is acquired, thus students are asked to read aloud a text to other students.By doing such, the read language registers in the mind of the students, making them learn the language. However, beyond the purpose of learning, the goals of Reading Aloud are to promote enjoyment and emphasize the uses of print (Mrs. Stewarts Web site). It exposes the students to the uses of printed materials, and develops preaching skills by motivating them to ask questions during the activity. During Reading aloud, students do not imply to view the read text. The focus is not on the content of the text, but what the student reads or explains about the text.The selection for such activities may be fiction or nonfiction, or it can be a narrative, or a moving picture book Another component of Balance Based Literacy is Shared Reading. During Shared Reading, students reformulate ideas from the context. Either the teacher or a proficient student lector reads to the class, while the rest of the students are invited to join in the reading. One important component of shared reading is an enlarged text which is readable by all children. The text used may contain songs, poems, charts, or lists created by the teacher or developed with the class during shared writing activities.During the reading, the teacher or student reader points to or glides a locator on the reading material to guide the students in reading. This is to draw students attention to the print in order to promote familiarity with words in the text. Shared reading activities involve multiple readings of books over sever al days. During the initial reading, the teacher emphasizes reading for enjoyment while subsequent readings are done to increase participation, and teach vocabulary, ideas, authors style, and intonation patterns.Through repeated readings of a particular text, children become familiar with word forms and build up science of words and phrases used in the text (Bridge, Winograd, & Haley Pikulski & Kellner, as cited in Frey et al. , 2004). The third reading component of Balance Based Literacy is Guided Reading. In this kind of activity, students are given more chances to express their ideas and feelings through inquiry. As such, it requires more student participation. In most cases, students are grouped together according to their level, and asked to read a text appropriate to their reading ability.In this case, the teacher needs to carefully identify each students level to ensure proper assessment. The fourth reading component is Independent Reading. This activity allows the student t o choose from a wide florilegium of texts. It aims to make students become confident, motivated and enthusiastic about their ability to read. Considered as an advanced approach to reading, this activity makes use of skills learned during the Reading Aloud, Shared Reading, and Guided Reading activities. The writing components of Balance Based Literacy also ensure variety in the application of approaches and resources.One component is the Shared Writing activity. In this activity, the teacher and the students together decide to keep a text in which the teacher acts as the scribe. The activity requires discussion of what they are writing about, and modeling of the teacher on the board how the text should be written. The students are asked to verbally interact with the teacher before, during, and afterwards the activity to help make connections. The second writing component is the synergetic Writing activity. In this activity, either the teacher and the class, or students in groups collaborate to write a material.The students articulate the words or sounds that they are about to write, and discuss with the teacher or group mates what they are writing about. The third component is the Guided Writing or Writing Workshop. This intends to allow students to spend time daily to write about things that interest them. Students are guided to experiment with a variety of genres. The ultimate goal is for students to develop a style of their own, and apply previous learning. In addition to the writing activity itself, the teacher offers a whole class session, small group lesson, or a conference where students can learn and share their written output.The fourth component is the Independent Writing. This activity allows students to write independently by choosing their own topic and genre. By letting them write freely, students develop the natural habit of writing, thereby making them improve along the process. In this kind of activity, teacher evaluation is set aside in order to promote creativity. The components of Balance Based Literacy are directed toward a common goal to ensure effective strategy in teaching literacy. They support basic literacy theories introduced in the past such as the constructivist, interactive, and experiential theories.Encompassing these theories, Balance Based Literacy may be viewed as a holistic approach to literacy instruction. Taking from the behaviorist theory of B. F. Skinner, the Constructivism theory believes that all knowledge is constructed through a process of reflective abstraction (Huitt, 2003). In the constructivist classroom, the learner is presented with opportunities to construct new knowledge in addition to prior knowledge and experience. In particular, Reading Aloud and Shared Writing support this theory. As students read and write aloud, they learn new sounds and vocabulary, and benefit from the sharing done by their classmates.Interactive Reading and Writing anchor on the Interactive theory. This th eory believes that learning is best attained through interaction with others. As discussed above, during Interactive Reading and Writing, students are given the opportunity to listen to others ideas. All the components mentioned above support the experiential theory. This theory purports that learning will best occur through individual experience. By asking students to read and write aloud, express ideas in interactive activities, and read and write on their own, teachers promote experiential learning as the very basis of their instruction.Although many educators believe in the effectiveness of Balance Based Literacy Instruction, some authors see disadvantages in its application. For instance, Wren (n. d. ) suggests that the needs of the learners must be the first consideration when designing an appropriate political computer programme of instruction. He claims that instruction should be patterned to the needs of the learners and not specific of one approach or a balance of many a pproaches. Another answer regarding application of Balance Based Literacy is the specific focus it gives on reading and writing.This tends to neglect other skills such as speaking and auditory modality, which are also important aspects of literacy. To mitigate problems arising from this neglect, the teacher should incorporate speaking and listening resources as tools for reading and writing instruction. For example, instead of focusing on printed materials, guided writing could use listening resources as motivation activities. Furthermore, technological resources should likewise be used to promote a holistic approach. Conclusion Balance Based Literacy has been considered by many as an ideal program to teach literacy.Given its whole rounded and comprehensive approach to reading and writing, it purports not just base learning but mastery of skills in the target areas. In addition, the activities it introduces provide a way to monitor the progress of students, and allow them to exper ience learning in various ways. Studies validating the effectiveness of Balance Based Literacy have found its applicability to young learners. However, not much has been said about its applicability to adult learners who are more in need of a balanced instruction.In this regard, it is highly recommended to conduct look for on the applicability of the said program of instruction among adult learners. References Balance overview. (n. d. ) Retrieved March 19, 2008, from http//projectcentral. ucf. edu/Past%20Initiatives/ fit/index. html Dorothy S. Strickland (n. d. ) Balanced Literacy Teaching the Skills and thrills of reading. http//teacher. scholastic. com/professional/teachstrat/balanced. htm Frey, Bruce B. , Steve W. Lee, Nona Tollefson &Lisa Pass. (2004). Balanced literacy in an urban school district. Retrieved 17 March 2008, from http//people. ku. edu/bfrey/balancedliteracy.pdf Kolb, David A. , Richard E. Boyatzis & Charalampos Mainemelis. Experiential learning theory Previous re search and new directions. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from http//www. learningfromexperience. com/images/uploads/experiential-learning-theory. pdf Literacy collaborative Our purpose. (n. d. ) Retrieved March 19, 2008, from http//www. literacycollaborative. org/about/characteristics/ Martha Manson French, M. (1999). Planning for literacy instruction Guidelines for planning and instruction for literacy. Retrieved March 19, 2008, from http//clercdev. gallaudet. edu/cc/Products/Sharing-Ideas/planning/guidelines.html Root, Cathy (n. d. ) Balanced Reading and writing in the first and second grade classroom an internet-based treasure hunt on balanced literacy. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from http//www. swlauriersb. qc. ca/english/edservices/pedresources/balancedlit/balancedliteracy. htm Thelen, Jeff. (n. d. ). A balanced literacy program for the upper elementary grades. Retrieved March 19, 2008, from http//curriculum. edenpr. org/jthelen/languagearts/a_balanced_literacy_program. htm Wren, S ebastian. (n. d. ) What does a balanced literacy approach mean? Retrieved from http//www. sedl. org/reading/topics/balanced. html
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Bhutan The concept of touristry development in Bhutan took place in post 1974 period during the reign of young majesty, King Jigme Dorji Wangchuk in study assembly. However, tourism byplay begun its operation with 274 tourist in 1974 at the time of coronation of fourth king, His Majesty Jigme Singye Wangchuk and since then tourism business started growing in Bhutan. Tourism is now recognized as having considerable potential as a tool for development and as a contributor to national revenue.In new(prenominal)(a) words, the Royal Government of Bhutan now recognizes that its tourism industry is second only to hydropower in terms of its potential to go foreign ex depart and provide for national sustainable development. With tourism development, it is undeniable to say that there are environs impacts which will be discussed in the spare-time activity paragraphs. Assessment and evaluation of the environment impacts of tourism in Bhutan The thr ee main impact areas of tourism in Bhutan are i. Depletion of inherent Resources ii.Air and noise defilement iii. carnal impacts Depletion of Natural Resources Tourism development in Bhutan puts pressure on natural resources when it increases consumption in areas where the resources are already scarce Water resources The tourism industry and in particular hotels and resorts generally overuse water resources. In major cities like Paro and Thimphu, m each tourist hotels and star hotels for tourists are built and several(prenominal) are under construction and others are yet to be constructed for tourism development.Hotel Taj Tashi at Thimphu, Uma resort in Paro and other tourist hotels like Hotel River learn in Thimphu are really overusing the water as compared to other industries. The impact is such that the people residing in those places are experiencing water shortages. Thimphu residents say that they dont water in time and that they pee to minimize water consumption. Pollutio n Tourism arse cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry air emissions, noise, solid waste and littering, releases of sewage, oil and chemicals, even architectural/visual pollution. Air pollution and noiseAs in any other country, tourism in Bhutan involves travelling, normally by motor car, busses and aero plane. So, the contribution of each to air and noise pollution is declarable. Many tour operators in Bhutan like Etho Meto Tours and journeys, Gangri Tours and Treks have latest model Japanese Toyota Cars, Land Cruisers, Haice Buses, Mini-buses and Coaster Buses being offered to tourists depending upon the group size. Sewage Especially with reference to Thimphu city, construction of tourists hotels, recreation and other facilities have lead to change magnitude sewage pollution.People staying nearby Babesa in Thimphu where the sewage tank (reservoir) is located are complaining of the unpleasant smell or the sewage pollution. Physical impacts Physical impacts such a s degradation of ecosystems are caused non only by tourism-related impart and construction, but by continuing tourist activities. Construction activities and infrastructural development In e truly district in Bhutan, there are tourists hotels being built and while constructing such hotels and resorts, the trees have to be cut from the forests causing damage to the environment.In addition, construction of Paro airport in early 1980s and the ongoing construction of one airport in Gelephu under Sarpang district, Yongphu airport in Trashigang lead to the land degradation and loss of wildlife habitats and deterioration of scenery. Another example that screw cited is with reference to ongoing construction of road to Merak and Sakteng in Trashigang for making accessible to the village in making that area as tourist destination are causing damage to the environment like spoiling the beautiful landscape. Tourism and vegetation plant life is one of the major attractions of many destination areas in the solid ground as well as in Bhuatan. The highlands of Laya and Lingzhi (Gasa district), the southern foothills like Trirang and Samtse, the densely covered forests of the equable zones of the places like Zhemgang, Trongsa, Mongar, Bumthang, TrashiYangtse are examples of vegetation which have allure for tourist. A variety of tourist activities bring impact upon vegetation. They include the following activities and effects The collection of flowers, orchids and plants can sequel in changes in species composition.Deliberate chopping of trees for tent poles and firewood in the cold places like Gasa, Trongsa and Lhuntse are done. People say this creates some sort of impact on vegetation if it is continued. For example, such practices have removed many younger trees from forests which alter the age structure of the plant community. This also leaves fewer trees to mature and provide provide for the site. Lack of worthy inspection by the government in high altitude campsit es like the one in Taupang campsite in Trashiyantse, the tourists are not concerned about the waste and they leave behind the waste in the area.This can result in changes in nutrient status of soils and damage bionomics by blocking out air and light. The Bhutanese tour agents are making camping program in their itinerary list. As a result of camping, it also brings impact environment. For instance, the construction of campsites in Nabji-Khorphu trial in Trongsa has involved in the removal of vegetation. The camping has similar effect to trampling and the damage extends into the adjoin area with the development of trials and picnic sites. Within the category of nature based attractions, Bhutans trekking routes represent the most important product currently grocery storeed.The following trekking routes are currently officially opened for international tourists Jomolhari Treks 1 & 2, Laya Gasa & Gasa Hot Spring Trek, Snowman Trek, Druk Path Trek, Dagala Thousand Lakes Trek, Nub Tshon apata Trek, Bumthang Cultural & Duer Hot Spring Treks, Gangtey Trek, Rodong La Trek and Samteygang Trek. The use of same trekking trails can bring trampling impact on environment. Alteration of ecosystems by tourist activities Habitat can be degraded by tourism leisure activities in Bhutan. Tourist activities like viewing and photographing of wildlife brings disturbances nd impact on wildlife in Bhutan. There are quite a intimately numbers of places where tourists can go and visit national parks and wild life sanctuaries. Some of them are Thrumsengla National Park in Bumthang, Bumdelling Wildlife Sanctuary at Trashiyangtse, Manas National Park in lower kheng areas of Zhemgang, Jigme Singye Wangchuk National Park at Trongsa. The development of such national parks can perhaps disturb the predator-prey relationships in future. Some positive impacts of tourism with regard to environmental impacts Educates topical anaesthetic people to manage waste properlyRural people learn from touri sts who are very particular in managing the waste. Whenever, European tourist visits villages and the festivals, they do not throw wastes like chocolate wrappers or plastic bottles anywhere they like. Instead they may be seen throwing in proper dustbins or take along in their bags overhauling environment to keep clean. Protection of endangered species Developing of national parks help to preserve and protect endangered species in Bhutan. In a way, tourism helps to environment to be protected from deforestation.It allows environment to give home and to have sustained flow of ecological life of endangered species like Black-necked crane, Golden Langur, Red Pandas, Musk Deer and Himalayan Black Bear. Solutions to reduce negative impacts of tourism on environment Although we cannot fully do away with negative impacts of tourism on environment because with development, it brings in the costs and that costs is directly or indirectly harming environment. But still, we can hope to find a light shinning at the end of the tunnel in reducing detrimental impacts of tourism on environment which can realise a difference.Following points can suffice the above phrase of reducing negative impacts Identification of proper waste disposal areas The government should identify proper waste disposal areas wherever necessary and important. In addition, dustbins must be placed in urban areas and pits must be dug wherever necessary. reforestation The government in collaboration with people should take initiatives in reforestation of plants and trees in converting barren places or tourist destinations. Recycling of waters The hoteliers should take the responsibleness of recycling and re-using of the water resources.Restriction of opening up of many new trails The government should allow selective trails and not open all for camping and trekking purposes. go away environment friendly developments If government or the communities can develop tourist destinations through establishment of botanical gardens and develop nature tourism in the designated national parks, it can help in the environmental conservation. Making tour agents responsible and accountable to environment The tour agents should be made responsible and accountable if any damages are caused to the environment.The government should make inspection of the tourist-destinations and levy fines to the tour agents if the places are kept dirty after the camping or so. Making calm hours observations to avoid noise pollution In the cities like Thimphu, if the government could frame a rule in observing quiet hours where the tourist vehicles and others are not allowed to move after 9pm on working days can perhaps reduce the noise pollution. Global environment impacts affect tourism industry The globose environment impacts do affect tourism industry. Following details will explain on the global environment affecting tourism industryNatural disaster Catastrophes like floods, earthquakes, wildfires, volcanoes, drought and diseases can have a serious effect on inbound and domestic tourism and thus on local tourism industries. The outbreak of the foot and mouth disease epidemic in England in 2001, has severely affected Great Britains inbound tourism market such that 75% of hotels in England, 81% in Scotland and 85% in Wales were affected resulting over 60% forecast a decline in business in the June- September 2001 period. Climate change Tourism contributes to climate change but it is also affected by climate change phenomenon.Climate change is likely to increase the severity and frequency of storms and severe weather events, which can have disastrous effects on tourism in the affected regions. The world is at risks of having drought, diseases and heat waves as a result of global warming. For instances in high peaks, the glaciers are said to be melting just as it is in the case of Bhutan where by as a result of melting snows and glaciers the formation of lakes at the bottom of the high moun tains and the increasing volume in the lakes like Raptrsang Tso are found.Such formation of lakes and if the lakes burst out then, it can bring floods and disasters to the valleys and towns located at sea level. These negative impacts can keep tourists away from holiday destinations. In addition to the above points, global warming may cause Less snowfall at ski resorts, that will result to shorter skiing season in the Alpine region. In already hot areas like Asia and Mediterranean, tourists will stay away because of immense heat, and out of fear of diseases and water shortages.Harm will be caused to vulnerable ecosystems such as rainforest and coral reefs because of rising temperatures and less rainfall. The sea levels will rise as a result of melting glaciers and north-polar ice. This rising sea levels will threaten coastal and marine areas with widespread floods in low-lying countries and island states, increasing the loss of coastal land. Beaches and islands that are major touri sm attractions may be the first areas to be affected. Increased events of extreme weather, such as tornadoes, hurricanes and typhoons will occur.These are already becoming more prevalent in tourist areas in the Caribbean and South East Asia. Hurricane Mitch in 1998, for instance, heavily affected tourism in the Caribbean. Wind damage, storm waves, heavy rains and flooding caused major losses in tourism sector. Reference 1. Sustainable Tourism Development Strategy Bhutan 2005. Published by Department of Tourism, Royal Government of Bhutan. 2. Tenth Five course Plan 2008-2013 Volume 1 Main Document. Published by Gross National Happiness Commission (2009), Royal Government of Bhutan
Culturally Diverse Workforce in an Organization Muhammad Junaid Murshed Southern New Hampshire University Abstract In this query paper, I will be discussing some(a) of the methods that may be used to effectively motivate a culturally diverse workforce in an organization. At first, I will gift a brief introduction to indigence, some of the well-known motivational theories and cultural diversity.Then, I will look into a few reasons for demotivation among the workforce of an organization, followed by some of the distinguished and effective motivational techniques that may be utilized to ascertain and/or deal with the same, citing real-life examples. Finally, I will conclude the paper with a brief summary of the key points discussed in the paper together-with a personal opinion about the effectiveness of the motivational methods discussed above. Motivation is defined as the desire to get through a goal or a certain performance level, leading to goal-directed behavior (Bauer and Erdog an, 2010, p. 97).As can be seen from the above statement motivation may be directly linked to performance. Although the direct correlation, motivation alone may not be sufficient to elicit the desired result. This is so, as, it (motivation) usually is influenced by factors such as an individuals ability (p. 97) to perform the task and the resources available (p. 97) to him/her to aid in achieving the objective(s). Culture refers to values, beliefs, and customs that exist in a society (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 40). Diversity refers to the ways in which people ar similar or different from each other (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 9). The world consists of various different cultures (p. 40) entailing a diverse (p. 29) population base i. e. in terms of age, gender, race, religion, physical abilities etc. Therefore, motivating (p. 97) individuals require down the stairsstanding their descent first, as, it is most likely to influence the predominant need in their personality. With the passing of time many scientists, philosophers and psychologists have developed various theories to explain and enhance an individuals motivational level. For the purpose of my research paper, I will be focusing on some of it, namely, Maslows hierarchy of needs (p. 00), the ERG opening (p. 101), the two-factor theory, the acquired-needs theory (p. 102) and the self-determination theory to base my comparisons and/or conclusions to cultural diversity. Maslows hierarchy of needs The theory is based on a simple premise Human beings have needs that are hierarchically ranked. There are some needs that are basic to all human beings, and in their absence nothing else matters. As we take on these basic needs, we sop up looking to satisfy higher order needs (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 99).Physiological needs The need for air, food, and water (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 100). Safety needs The need to be free from risk of infection and pain (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 100). Social needs The needs of bonding with other human beings, being loved, and forming lasting attachments with them (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 100). Esteem needs The desire to be respected by ones peers, feel important, and be appreciated (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 100). Self-actualization need The need to become all you are capable of becoming (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 00). ERG theory ERG theory, developed by Clayton Alderfer, is a modification of Maslows hierarchy of needs. Instead of the five needs that are hierarchically organized, Alderfer proposed that basic human needs maybe grouped under three categories, namely, existence, relatedness, and growth (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 101). Existence A need corresponding to Maslows physiological and safety needs (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 101). Relatedness A need corresponding to Maslows kind needs (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 101).Growth A need referring to Maslows esteem and self-actualization (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 101). Two-fact or theory By asking individuals what satisfies them on the job and what dissatisfies them, Herzberg came to the conclusion that aspects of the work environment that satisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 101). Acquired-needs theory According to this theory, individuals acquire three types of needs as a result of their life experiences. These needs are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power.All individuals possess a combination of these needs, and the dominant needs are thought to drive employee behavior (Bauer and Erdogan, 2010, p. 102). Self-determination theory Self-Determination Theory (SDT) represents a broad framework for the study of human motivation and personality. SDT articulates a meta-theory for framing motivational studies, a formal theory that defines intimate and varied extrinsic sources of motivation, and a description of the respective roles of intrinsic and types of ext rinsic motivation in cognitive and social development and in individual differences.Bibliography 1. Bauer T. & Erdogan B. (2010) demographic Diversity. Organizational Behavior, 29. 2. Bauer T. & Erdogan B. (2010) Cultural Diversity. Organizational Behavior, 40. 3. Bauer T. & Erdogan B. (2010) Theories of Motivation. Organizational Behavior, 97. 4. Bauer T. & Erdogan B. (2010) Theories of Motivation Need-Based Theories of Motivation. Organizational Behavior, 100-102. 5. Self-Determination Theory An Approach to Human Motivation & Personality. Retrieved from http//www. selfdeterminationtheory. org/theory
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Travis Alexander, a 30-year-old businessman, well-known motivational speaker and dev divulge Mormon. With a single gunshot to the right brow and being stabbed 29 times, Travis was then left wing for dead in a stand up shower in his bathroom for several days. When Arias was questi mavend by the police she stated that she had not nattern Travis since April of 2008. She then claimed she had seen 2 men kill him, then eventually saying that she killed him out of self-defense (Warren, 2013).According to Arias, the dysfunction of their relationship reached its climax when she killed Alexander in self-defense after he became enraged following a day of sex and a gun accident, forcing her to fght for her life. This was the third different account of how Alexanders death had occurred that Arias had offered police, which both prosecutors and observers felt severely damaged Arias credibility as a witness, a sentiment later echoed by Jurors upon the completion of the guilt phase. Arias also me ntion they had split up, but Alexander would mum invite Arias to his house for sex.Investigators found a camera at the crime mise en scene which had damaging evidence time stamped on photos left on the cameras warm drive, detectives found Alexanders clothes, sheets, and pillow case in the washer. Also, found the washing machine was the cameras memory card. With positive DNA samples and hair matching Jodi Arias at the crime scene Arias was arrested for the murder of Travis Alexander. In September 2008, Arias was given a public defender and she then pleaded not guilty at her arraignment. In October 2008 the Maricopa County Attorneys office filed a take note of intent to seek the death penalty against Arias.The Maricopa County Superior court then accused Jodi Arias of First-degree murder in an especially cruel, heinous or depraved manner. This began one of the biggest criminal proceedings since Casey Anthony. Arias told Judge Sherry Stephens she wanted to represent herself. The re quest was granted but Arias Public defenders Kirk Nurmi and Victoria Washington stayed on the case. Defense attorney Kirk Nurmi argued Jodi Arias acted in self- defense after their relationship became sexual and physically abusive ( azimuth Central, 2013).Arias defense attorneys requested that the death penalty be aken off as a punishment due to the defense she did not plan to kill Travis Alexander it was an act of self-defense. This motion was denied. Nurmi tried to enter in electronic letters into evidence to prat his case, these letters supposedly nad proot ot Travis Alexander allegedly admitting being a pedophile. This evidence was dismissed due to it being forged. This delayed the struggle for three weeks. In January 2011 Victoria Washington filed a motion to withdraw from the Arias case. With the motion being granted, Jennifer Willmott was then assigned to the case.Willmott questioned Arias n the stand for 19 days and handled the witnesses for the defense which end up with W illmott discrediting Janeen DeMarte a clinical psychologist a state witness (Arizona Central, 2013). In January 2013, opening arguments began. Deputy County Attorney Juan Martinez, a prosecutor known for his gamesmanship, asked the Jury to disapprobation Jodi Arias to death. In his opening statements Jan. 2, 2013, he told the Jury that Arias first stabbed Travis Alexander, then slit his throat and put a bullet in his head after he was already dead.Martinez painted a picture of an attractive but ealous woman who murdered a successful man who was trying to break ties with her. His conduct during the trial came under scrutiny of defense attorneys when he was shown in the media posing for pictures with trial spectators outside the courthouse (Arizona Central, 2013). During the trial Juan Martinez tries to geta jurisdictional overtop passed against Arias use of text messages during the case. The rule was not passed due to lack of evidence and Freedom of speech.Ryan Burns a former love interest of Jodi Arias testified on June 5, 2008 Arias was several hours late arriving home, she told him that she got lost and stop to rest. Arias had dyed her hair and had cuts on her hands. Arias mentioned she had cut them while working at Margaritaville Resturant, she had broken a glass and cut her finger. They settled down to watch a film together and soon got physical, he told the court at some point we were talking and we kissed, he said. Every time we started kissing it got a modest more escalated (Warren, 2013).At some point she was kissing my neck, I was kissing hers, but our clothes never came off. Burns said they resumed their kissing later that night when she climbed on top of him, but they stopped as he did not want her to egret the visit due to her Mormon beliefs about sex. Burns, who is also a Mormon, was unaware that honorable 24 hours earlier, she had been posing provocatively for photographs later found on her murdered ex-boyfriends camera. On the stand the pro secutor asked about Arias strength, Burns replied, she is a lot plastered than she looks (Warren, 2013).Penalty phase began on May 16, 2013, when prosecutors called Alexanders family members to offer victim impact statements, in an effort to convince the Jury that Arias crime merited a death doom. On May 21, 2013, Arias offered an allocution, during which she pleaded for a life sentence. Arias cknowledged that her plea for life was a reversal of remarks she made to a TV reporter shortly after her conviction, when she said she like the death penalty. Each time I said that, I meant it, but I lacked perspective, the former Arias said. Until very recently, I could not imagine standing forwards you and asking you to give me life. She said she changed her mind to avoid bringing more pain to members of her family, who were in the courtroom.At one point, she held up a white T-shirt with the book of account survivor written across it, telling the Jurors that she would sell the clothing and donate all proceeds to victims of domestic abuse. She also said she would donate her hair to Locks of sleep with while in prison, and had already done so three times while in Jail. That evening, in a Joint Jailhouse interview with The Arizona Republic, snow, Arias said sne didnt know whether the Jury would come back witn lite or death. Whatever they come back with I will have to deal with it, I have no other choice. Regarding the verdict she said It felt like a huge sense of unreality, I felt betrayed, actually, by the Jury. I was hoping they would see things for what they are. I felt really awful for my family and what they were thinking. (Warren, 2013) On May 23, 2013, the sentencing phase of Arias trial resulted in a hung Jury, prompting the judge to declare a mistrial for that phase. CNN inform the vote was 8 to 4 in favor of death (Shoichet, 2013).After the mistrial was declared and the Jury disaerated, the jury foreman stated that he believed Arias was mentally abused, but that had not been enough to excuse her crime. He also said, l think 18 days hurt her, I think she was not a good witness. Were charged with presuming innocence, right? But she was on the stand for so long, there were so many contradicting stories. He said the Jury ound the responsibility of weighing the death sentence overwhelming, but were horrified when their efforts ended in a mistrial. By the end of it, we were mentally and emotionally exhausted, he said. l think we were horrified when we found out that they had actually called a mistrial, and we felt like we had failed.
To become a good student, you need to get motivated penury can come from seeing the situation of many poor children around the world who are not lucky enough to get a priggish education. This is a good thing to keep in mind when you find yourself not wanting to attend class or study at home. other reason to get motivated to study is that you lead enjoy a better quality of life as an educated person. You can go to educational websites, give care this one, and surf them with interest.You must not force yourself to study, as this will make learning a chore and you will not feel like even opening your books. You will have many academically good students in your courses. Try becoming friends with them (or encourage your current friends to be better students), and youll be immersed in an academic environment which will help you feel motivated Above all, you need confidence For that, we need to feel that we are working for ourselves and not for others Good luckChapter 2 Concentration On StudiesConcentration follows eagerness. This section provides you with the basics of Concentration and also provides you with advice as to how to get aroused with concentration. You need to pay back attention in a class. Dont start chatting with your peers/friends when the teacher turns their back to you. Even better dont associate with distracting concourse. You should realize that the people in your class play an important role in how everybody progresses. However, if you are a good student you will do better and achieve your goals. Your friends will be there for you at that time, if they are trustful and of a good reputation.At home, study and do your homework in a place that doesnt make you sleep. It is advisable to have a dedicated study table or desk. Dont do your study work on the fill out or in front of the TV, radio, stereo, etc. That would be pointless because you are meant to be thinking about your studies.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Robert K. Merton describes deviance as a unaccepted means of attaining socially important goals. His term innovation requires the person to obtain such goals (wealth, power, etc) in socially unacceptable means, therefore placing the person in the category of a deviant. The strengths of feel at deviance in criminology are the boundless resources of sociologists and other social scientists such as Merton, Emile Durkheim, and George Herbert Mead.Their works are timeless and to the point as they do not need to reflect the up-to-the-minute state of societies and instead only the underlying conflict theories from that school of thought that they represent. They are complimentary to current studies, simply herein lies the weakness and that is the ever-changing actors and states in societies that need to be studied. The most important factor is the socio-cultural root of socially important goals that deviancy holds many times for the criminal.Those natural into poverty and those whose e thnicity or other minority status puts them into societal disadvantage may innovate ways to achieve simple survival when economies fail them. These socio-cultural grow need to be further explored. The past decade has sh give birth more minority arrests on the part of women and black men, for example. A research study done by the National Institute of Justice suggests that strides of violent crimes by women is on the increase and the term marginalized is used to possibly explain that the most vulnerable women (those who are victims of crimes perpetuated by others) are most likely to commit crimes themselves.But the weakness is the absence of explanation as to why now this is a growing problem as women have always held minority status, but have not shown this level of deviancy. Black men are another group that is disproportionately incarcerated in sexual relation to whites. The question may be of what is the rate of arrest vs. conviction? Is it that these minority populations are b eing arrested at higher rates and inevitably convicted due to the financial strain of defense and, in fact deviancy has not changed, arresting attitudes have changed?Research is of the utmost importance in revealing these answers. At any rate these are socio-cultural issues, as is the issue of the images and glamorization of crime in some groups. Pierce and Singleton (1995) suggest that in young African American youth achieving is associate to a sense of competence and that that competence represents a sense of control over their possibly out-of-control environments.Innovation then is transformed into deviancy when control and competence is the desired outcome. flavour at conflict theory and economics is the key to understanding this, but it does make it difficult for the Criminologist, as he or she must look to the current state of affairs in a society and look back to theories sometimes in other disciplines to comprehend deviancy. Studies must be done on motivation and percepti on, which are highly psychological.Organizational Behavior offers insight into, such deviant topics as gangs and recruitment, etcPolitical Science may be utilized to look at other comparable societies to ones own and the crime rate in relation to regime/regime change and other political factors. divinity (and the Protestant Ethic, for example) may offer insight into deviancy of past and present, as well. But, most importantly a Criminologist must understand the socio-cultural roots, stereotypes, and cultural bias that exists in his/her own community of interest to understand deviancy as innovation and the roots of all this.ReferencesEitzen, D. S. Phi Delta Kappan. April 1992. Problem Students The Sociocultural Roots. p.587.Mead, G.H. (1918) The Psychology of Punitive Justice, American daybook of Sociology 23 577-602.National Institute of Justice. (1999). Research on Women and Girls in the Justice System Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Research and Evaluation-Enha ncing insurance policy and Practice Through Research. Volume 3.Pierce, W.J. & Singleton, S.M. (1995). Improvisation as a concept for understanding and treating violent behavior among African American youth. Families in Society. 76(7). pp.444-450.
There are many questions that come to mind when looking at the significant roles denominationalism affects the Christian faith. We see this growing trend of doctrinal beliefs that cause for many of our African American Churches to worship separately on a weekly bases for Sunday morning time Worship Services and Mid-Week Bible Studies. Through the incorporation of doctrinal beliefs that govern our churches making for divisions at bottom the Christian faith, we also find division and difference at heart that denomination also. I ask myself this question, how and why there are so many denominations founded and why are there so many sub-cultures or denominational split within them if we are the Body of Christ and one church? Through this paper I will take a look at two churches, the A.M.E. and A.M.E.Z. church to understand what makes them different while exploring the doctrinal beliefs that divide them.The Methodist Church was formed by a few students in England at Oxford University. Known as the Oxford Methodist, they were ridiculed for their beliefs in 1729. They were dubbed Bible Bigots, Bible Moths, and the Holy Club. Three major names are cited as influential members of this group John and Charles Wesley and Greg Whitefield and where were methodically religious. This group felt that it was necessary to be justified before one could be sanction and that they should give close attention to live a heart of holiness. The Methodist movement do its substance to the American Colonies after being it was not able to remain within the Church of England. After an evangelistic team made up of many un-churched believers from within the Church of England, under the direction of Wesley, submitted a declaration.This document was penned by John Wesley as early as 1739, adumbrate general rules of governance with Bible rules and conduct that is still held today by the modern Methodist Church. In 1784 a Deed of Declaration was submitted, giving its level-headed status to the yearly Methodist conference. In this brief historical overview of the Methodist Church as a whole, we see how small divisions within any church organization can form. In this case it was out of a team of evangelist who were not welcomed by the Church of England. The winds of change continued to blow within the Methodist Church movement. The emergence of the African Americans willing to worship the Methodist banner more trials ensued as we see a difference of human rights and par raising its head. After the formation of the Methodist Church in the United States we see a set of worshipers from within the vast population of slaves in the south.The prototypic Great Awakening in the 1740s led by John Wesley, records in his journal that be baptized two Black converts on November 29, 1758. This Methodist conjunction organized in Maryland in 1764 and then later in New York in 1776, both charters included African Americans in great occur on their church rosters. As American history notes, the horrible experience of slavery and unjust treatment servant worker who were owned by Whites made for great indifference in this country and likewise within the walls of the Methodist Church. There was a Second Great Awakening that came at the turn of the vitamin C in 1800. The Methodist church had a strong following by both freed and not yet freed slaves. They church spoken in opposition to slavery, then late somewhat retreated as a force of the opposition to slavery.As the Slave Rebellions grew constant Gabriel Prosser was constrained to admonish his fellowship to spare the Methodist and the Quakers. Out of this we see the Methodist movement take actions in Virginia where Richard Allen felt the need to withdraw from fellowship with the white Methodists of Philadelphia. Richard Allen and the A.M.E. Church, (African Methodist Church) in 1787 led other black worshipers withdrawal from St. Georges Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia after being pulled from their kn ees is worship in an area that they did not know way off limited to black worshipers. This event led to protest and according to Allan, All went out of the church in a body. and they were more plagued with us in the church.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Integration of the various racial and ethnic groups, the central aim of the 1 Malaysia concept, had always been the essential concern of the governments knowledge polity since Independence in 1957. In fact the Razak command report of 1956 and the Rahman Talib report of 1960 had delineated clear guidelines and emphasise national integration. Compargon and contrast out the aims and planning of Barnes Report (1950), Fenn-Wu Report (1951), the Razak Report (1956) and the Rahman Talib Report (1960).After World War Two, the knowledge outline in Malaya was pretty much in shambles, and until Malaya achieved her independence in 1957, much had to be d mavin to map out a new education system for the nation. Efforts began with the introduction of a new, national education system with position as the one and only pickyity of instruction, but fin wholey, an education system was formed in which Malay became the important medium of instruction.In 1949, a interchange Advisory Committee on program line was answer up to aid the government in deciding on the best form of education system, which could be implemented in Malaya, to be the catalyst in fostering national unity. In 1950, the Barnes Committee came out with the Barnes Report, which proposed that all primary vernacular give instructions maintain one single measuring rod and become national schools using the same syllabus but bilingual languages, which were Malay and English. Secondary schools, however, had to maintain English as their expressive style of instruction.One year later in 1951, there was the Fenn-Wu Report, which whole-heartedly supported the formation of a national education system, but felt that the Chinese-medium schools should be retained. Their argument was that the surface area could still achieve unity although there was diversity in the medium of instruction. It was only in 1952 that the development ordination was passed, based on the Barnes Report. This did not compile good respo nse from the Chinese and Indians, who protested the abolition of their mother tongues as one of the mediums of instruction.Due to the failing economy and shortage of trained teachers for the national schools, however, the study Ordinance of 1952 was not fully implemented. Three years later in 1955, another committee was formed, this time chaired by Dato Abdul Razak Hussein and it was given the task of reviewing the education system of Malaya. The committee received 151 memorandums from individuals, humans bodies and associations. After much deliberation, the Razak Committee proposed, one year later, the following The education system should comprise two types of primary school type primary schools that use Malay as their medium of instruction, and standard-type primary schools that use either Kuo-Yu or Tamil or English as the medium of instruction. Both these schools, however, would rely on a common syllabus. Both types of primary school should enforce Malay as a compulsory sub ject. All field of study Secondary Schools should use a common syllabus and examination and enforce Malay and English as their compulsory subjects. All teachers, regardless of which school they would eventually teach at, should be trained with a common syllabus in teachers training colleges. In 1960, the Rahman Talib review committee was com perpetrationed to study the Razak Report, with the aim of modify its implementation and emphasizing the use of Malay as the medium of instruction. The Rahman Talib Report became the basis for the development bite 1961, which was subsequently passed by the Parliament. Three main components were maintained i.A common schooling system for all races ii. The national language as the main medium of instruction for all level of schooling and iii. A common national-based school curriculum and examination. The 1996 Education Act was formulated as a continuation modernisation of the 1961 Education Act. Describe the main provision of the 1996 Educatio n Act and their application in the education system and in the schools. The Razak Report sewer be regarded as the foundation for the development of the subject field Education governing body used.The main issues in the field Education were i) The desire to form one interior(a) Education System for all races ii) To make the Malay language the main medium of instruction iii) To establish a curriculum orientated towards the local environment through the formulation of a common education syllabus with akin(predicate) contents and iv) Strengthen the National Education System for all students in it. The development of the formation of the Education Act was continued in order to dismiss several requests voiced by the different races in Malaysia and to improve on suggestions recommended in the Razak Report.This was known as the Rahman Talib Report (1960) and it became the basis for the formation of the 1961 Education Act. Amongst the changes and amendments make to the Razak Report we re primary education was free primary schools became national schools and national-type schools advanced education was extended to 15 years of age students advanced to the next standard automatically Islamic studies for students when there were not less than 15 students and Moral education was given due attention.After the 1960 Abdul Rahman Talib Report, there come more reports for ensamplethe Hussien Onn Report (1971) and 1979 Mahathir Report. Both these Reports were done to re-examine the Countrys Education Policy which was based on the Razak and Rahman Talib Reports. The 1996 Education Act was formulated as a continuation and modernization of the 1961 Education Act.The aim of the 1996 Education Act was towards strengthening the National Education System for the next generation in line with the inevitably and aspirations of the province to make Malaysia an world-wide centre for educational excellence.Even though the Education Act 1996 was a new legislation, it reflected a cont inuity of the wishes and policies of the existing education system. It was formed along the main recommendations of the Razak Report, 1956 which was the basis of the National Education Policy till then. The new Act also continued some of the relevant suggestions from the Education Act 1961. The objective for drafting the laws (Education Act 1996) was to widen the scope and introduce legislation on education.Clause 152 of the Malaysian Constitution has positioned the Malay Language as the National Language to ensure unity of its population. The National Education Philosophy was made a basis of the National Education Act formulated after taking into account the views and aspirations of all sectors. The aim of the Education system in Malaysia was formulated based on the objective found in the National Ideology, National Education Policy and New Economic Policy (NEP).Among the objectives of the Education System in Malaysia are i) Production of prime(a) education ii) Production of educa ted and skilled students iii) Production of unified community iv) Social community development v) Production of quality workforce vi) Economic production, especially in rural areas vii) Formation of trustworthy and commited citizens in a democratic country viii) Restructuring of socio-economic structure of the population as stated in the New Economic Policy (NEP) and ix) Eradication of poverty.By the Education Act, the concept of the National Education System was improved with the inclusion of all levels of schooling from pre-school to high education, covering all school categories which is government, government-assisted and public schools. The position of National Language was enhanced with its allocation as the main medium of instruction in the National Education System. This was further strengthened when the language was made a compulsory subject at all schools and educational institutions. The Clauses 152 of the Malaysian Constitution had positioned the Malay Language as a N ational Language to ensure racial unity.The position of the Malay Language became even more secured when the National Language Act was passed in 1967. Beginning 1970, the medium of instruction in English primary schools were changed to the National Language in stages. Several measures were taken to develop the Malay Language including the establishment of the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) in 1956, the launch of Language Week and Language calendar month to encourage the use of the Malay Language and the launce of the Bahasa Jiwa Bangsa slogan in 1960.Other methods included the establishment of secondary schools which used the Malay Language as a medium of instruction, for example in Alam Shah School, Sri Puteri School and Sultan Abdul Halim School. The curriculum for all types and categories of schools were coordinated in line with the countrys need, when the economic consumption of the National Curriculum allocated in the Education Act 1996 became compulsory for all.Students from all types and categories of schools were prepared to sit for examination conducted by the Government and as a result, it simplified the usage of a common evaluation or appraisal method on the achievement of students from schools in the country. Religious Studies were extended to include Muslim students from all categories of schools including public schools and strengthened by making the subject one of the core subjects in schools.With the existence of allocation that allowing the Minister of Education to establish and manage kindergarten, the less gold from the rural areas were given a chance to get pre-school education which is considered a good basis when starting primary education. The quality of education programmes at all kindergartens could be improved as it is compulsory for all these kindergarten to use the Pre-school Curriculum Guidelines produced by the Education Ministry.In line with the efforts to culturalize the education of science and technology, technical educatio n were improved in secondary technical schools and polytechnic institutions. The Education Act 1996, made it easier for the status of vocational schools to be upgraded to that of technical schools, while polytechnic institutions can conduct co-operative programmes with any institutions, agencies or industrial organizations to manage technical or vocational courses or training programmes, including exchange programmes.Polytechnic institutions are allowed to conduct agree programmes for lambskin and degree courses with high(prenominal)(prenominal) Education Institutions either locally or internationally. Teachers training was strengthened with the allocation that allowed the Ministry of Education to organize Teachers Education Programmes at certificate, diploma and degree levels in pairs. Private education was developed in a more systematic manner with specific allocations.Attention was also given to vocational education for this particular group of students. However, intensive voca tional training, for example for blind students was given after they left school. The most important component in the special mixed education was the resource teachers who were responsible not only for teaching handicapped students but also assisting the normal teachers, build and prepare teaching and eruditeness materials as well as provide counseling service for the students.Realising that Malaysia is a multi-racial country, and based on political discussions conducted by previous leaders, the Education Act 1996 took into thoughtfulness the rights of all races by maintaining the status quo of national type of primary schools and 60 unavowed Chinese schools. Apart from that, the United Examination carried out by these schools as well as the conforming schools and mission schools, the Board of Supervisor was also maintained. The Education Act 1996 also allocated for the teaching of languages or natives living in the country if it is deemed acceptable and practical.Religious class es like bible classes do not have to be registered down the stairs the 1996 Education Act. The Malaysia Qualification Agency (MQA) was established on the initiative of November 2007 with the enactment of the Malaysia Qualification Agency Act (Act 679). As a result MQA takes on the role of LAN as well as playing a more comprehensive role as stated in the Act. What are the main features of the Malaysia Qualification Agency? In what ways is the Agency playing a bigger role than the defunct National Accreditation Board (LAN)? Please refer to the MQA website for more information http//www. mqa. gov. my.The National Accreditation Board or Lembaga Akreditasi Negara (LAN) was established in 1996 under the Parliament Act and was the national quality impudence agency for private higher educational institutions. Meanwhile, the quality assurance divisions under the Ministry of Higher Education administrate the quality of public universities, polytechnics and public community colleges. On 1s t of November 2007, a new agency Malaysian Qualification Agency (MQA) was established under a new education legislation the Malaysian Qualification Act 2007. This new Malaysian Qualification Agency replace the following agency *Lembaga Akreditasi Negara (established under Act 556), for private higher educational institutions * The Quality Assurance Division of MOHE, for public universities * The Quality Assurance Division of MOHE, for polytechnics & community colleges MQA comes under the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). MQA acted as a national body to implement the national framework known as the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF), to accredit higher educational qualifications, to scotch the quality of higher education providers, to establish and maintain the Malaysian Qualification exhibit.The establishment of a new entity which merges National Accreditation Board (LAN) and the Quality Assurance Division, Ministry of Higher Education (QAD) was appr oved by the Government on 21st December 2005. This entity is responsible for quality assurance of higher education for both the public and the private sectors. The main role of the MQA is to implement the Malaysian Qualification Framework (MQF) as a basis for quality assurance of higher education and as the role point for the criteria and standards for national qualifications.The MQA is responsible for monitoring and overseeing the quality assurance practices and accreditation of national higher education. With the vision to be a credible and internationally recognized higher education quality assurance body and the mission to inspire the confidence of its stakeholders through best practices, the MQA is set to chart new boundaries in higher education quality assurance. The MQA Act is designed to promote the dynamic growth of higher education and the portability of Malaysian qualifications.It should inspire the confidence of parents, students, employers, both local and international in the standards of qualifications and quality of their delivery. The MQA Act 2007 comprises the following 16 parts persona I Preliminary definitions Part II Malaysian Qualification Agency Part trio Malaysian Qualification Council Part IV Provisions Relating to Employees Part V Financial Provisions Part VI Malaysian Qualification Framework Part VII Provisional Accreditation Part VIII Evaluation of other Qualifications Part X Institutional AuditPart XI National Qualification Register Part XII Appeals Part XIII Enforcement and Investigation Part XIV Offences and Penalties Part XV Miscellaneous Part XVI Repeal, Savings and Transitional The 16 parts of MQA Act include the provision for * The establishment of MQA as the agency with overarching responsibility for assuring the quality of all post secondary programmes and qualifications provided by higher education providers in the country. * The establishment of the Malaysian Qualification Framework (MQF).* Provisional accreditation as the initial process towards accreditation. * Accreditation that takes into consideration the diversity of higher education in Malaysia local program under MQF, foreign programmes including collaborative arrangements, distance and e-learning, professional programmes and skill qualifications. * Registration of qualifications from self-accrediting institutions. * Recognition of prior learning and experience and credit transfers. * The Malaysian Qualifications Register (MQR) as the national reference point for all qualification that have been accredited.As a quality assurance body, the functions of MQA are * To implement MQF as a reference point for Malaysian qualification. * To develop standards and criteria and all other relevant instruments as national references for the conferment of awards with the cooperation of stakeholders. * To quality assure higher education institutions and programmes. * To accredits courses that fulfill the set criteria and standards. * To facilitate the re cognition and articulation of qualifications. * To maintain the Malaysian Qualification Register (MQR).The establishment of the MQA and the implementation of the MQF will benefit national higher education and the development of human capital. In the Quality Assurance System, MQA has developed a tag of practice on criteria and standards for higher education in Malaysia. This code of practice is benchmarked against international good practices and nationally accepted by stakeholders through various consultations. The code provides a guideline of general requirements in the following areas * Vision, mission and learning outcomes.* Curriculum design and delivery. * Student selection and support services. * Assessment of students * Academic staff * Educational resources * Program monitoring and review. * Leadership, governance and administration. * Continuous quality improvement. In general, MQA quality assures programmes through two distinct processes * Provisional Accreditation this is initial process which will help higher education providers to achieve the accreditation by enhancing the standard and quality set in the provisional accreditation evaluation.* Accreditation this is a formal recognition that the certificates, diplomas or degrees awarded by higher education institutions are in accordance with the set standards. The MQA Act 2007 also provides for the conferment of a self accrediting status to mature higher education institutions that have well established internal quality assurance mechanisms. To be so conferred, the higher education institution needs to undergo an institutional audit, and if successful, all qualifications it offers will be automatically registered in the MQR.The processes above are further supported by continuous monitoring to ensure the programmes offered by the institution are always quality assured. Further, nine criteria have been benchmarked as international best practice, which forms the basis of the accreditation assessment . Accreditation will be the highest status in quality assessment done by MQA. It will be the guarantee given by MQA to all stakeholders of higher education which include students, parents, employers, etc. that programmes accredited by MQA are quality programmes.Once the courses of study are accredited, the accreditation status will outride for as long as the institution can meet the framework requirements and QA standard and criteria as well as institutional mission under the MQAs Institutional Audit. RUJUKAN Akta Pendidikan 1961. (1984). International Law Book Service. Kuala Lumpur Akta Pendidikan 1996. (1998). International Law Book Service. Kuala Lumpur Federation of Malaya. (1951). Report of the Committee on Malay Education. Kuala Lumpur Government Press. Tie Fatt Hee (2000). Undang-undang Pendidikan di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur Fajar Bakti.